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[SOC275H5] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (44 pages long)Premium

44 pages247 viewsSummer 2016

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC275H5
Professor
Paulina García Del Moral
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
SOC275H5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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If we fail to recognize the structural/political dimension of gender, it is easy to think that
we just slap it onto a biological body
Reproduce and legitimize this thinking every time we subscribe to the ‘interplanetary
theory’ of gender difference
o Presents women and men as opposites, as if they came from different planets
o Universal differences are because women and men can’t understand each other,
exaggerates role of differences between women and men
o Cartoon suggests nothing in common between women and men, and it is
hardwired into us resulting in gender inequality.
Gender Binary
Refers to the idea that there are only two sexes and therefore only two genders
By suggesting these are opposites, binary then portrays women and men as
fundamentally different and contrasting
This idea is pretty new, as in history, they usually didn’t think of women and men as
opposites just because of reproductive differences
Common explanations of gender difference (nature v. nurture)
Traditional approaches to gender (nature) are rooted in an approach that sees gender
difference as the root, which leads to gender inequality
o Essentialist approach assumption about role that biology plays, becomes
essence of our differences.
Kimmel and Holler (2011) gender inequality is the root which is what leads to gender
difference
o Socialization Women and men are taught to be different from the time we are
born
Both see women and men as very different from each other, and both assume that the
differences b/w are far greater and more decisive than the differences that we might
observe among women or among men, and assume that gender domination is the
inevitable outcome of gender difference, and gender difference causes domination
What does gender inequality look like in Canada?
Absence of a national action plan to address violence against women
Gender equality is far from a reality, in the late 80’s, Canada used to be one of the top
places but now has fallen to #19
Making gender (inequality) visible for Women and Men
The task ahead of us is to make gender a visible structure of inequality
We need to analyze how men are gendered, not only women, we need to deal with the
invisibility of privilege
o Gender, race, class are invisible
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Consequence of invisibility is that many men are defensive/angry, when they are
confronted with realities of racism, sexuality, etc. are shown to them
Another consequence is the illusion of gender neutrality we are neutral when it comes
to many things so it is hard to make claims of discrimination
Not all men’s experiences, or all women’s experiences, are the same
Gender differences as “Deceptive Distinctions”
Being in a position of powerlessness may prompt individuals to talk more. In contrast,
silence is related to the concept of power
Men and women use language differently in different situations, and we need to pay
attention to power
Experience also determines how we act, as opposed to out gender
If we factor in all these deceptive distinctions, we can realize that the differences are not
as we once thought
What about the similarities?
Think critically about mean differences
o Differences in the average scores of women and men in standardized tests
Don’t tell is much about the differences between women and men, and mostly, women
and men overlap
We need to be aware of how gender inequality structures our assumptions about gender
difference, not the other way around. In turn work both to normalize and legitimize this
inequality
Social Institutions and the Reproduction of Gender Inequality
We need to make privilege visible, and recognize that institutions that shape us as men or
women are gendered
Assuming institutions are gender neutral has political and personal consequences
Double-bind (pg 15) assumption of gender difference and assumption of gender
neutrality coming together
o Assume institution is gender neutral, but at the same time, have to deal with
gender differences as the woman needs to be seen as more masculine in order to
succeed
o If men want to step up and participate more actively in their families, it may forgo
other opportunities to move up in a higher hierarchy
Fausto-Sterling: Five Sexes?
Beyond two sexes, there can be ‘five sexes’
1. Male
2. Female
3. “Herms” (one testis and one ovary)
4. “Merms” (testes, XY, and some female sex organs)
5. “Ferms" (ovaries, XX, and some male sex organs)
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