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Midterm

SOC275H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: All The Same, Determinism, Essentialism

18 pages46 viewsFall 2018

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC275H5
Professor
Judy Beglaubter
Study Guide
Midterm

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SOC 275: Lecture #1
Why study sex and gender?
- Connect personal troubles with social issues = sociological imagination
What is Feminism?
- Feminism is the radical notion that women are people
- Applying sociological imagination to gender inequality
o Bcuz women are systematically oppressed/disadvantaged
- Perfect hold of belief in economic/social equality between gender
o Equal pay for equal work + glass ceiling + end sexual violence
Do we still need Feminism?
- YES!
- Reading #1 (for today): Gould, L.
o Children could adapt; while parents couldn’t
o “Free to be doing me” 1972: stories told by celebrities of the day
“free to be you and me”
there shouldn’t be a limit for what men/women should do
- Baby Storm
o Critics accused Witterick + Stocker of conducting a social experiment on their
child
Raise a child w/o a gender: (Gender free)
Give the child the freedom to be a male/female
More rabid ones call: child abuse = negative responses
o Witterick: “when will we live in a world where people can make choices to be
whoever they are?”
- Gender Neutral Toys (Gender Bender)
o Specific toys for specific gender
o only changed signs at supermarket BUT not the labels on products
- Girls gone Anti-Feminist?
o Reading #2: Social notions that we no longer need feminism because we’ve
achieved equality (Douglas)
o Compensation coming out law + medical school + sports + restriction on how
women should dressed + acceptable masculinity (okay to cry) + sexual norms +
less double sexual standards + men share house works + illegal to rape wives
Reality: STILL segregation between jobs + still pay less 78% than men
o Media is purposely to produce the idea that women now is equal
What enlighten sexism in the article?
Where do these cultural ideas come from & what functions do they serve
o “women are now more ‘equal’: therefore, free to embrace things we used to see
as sexist, including hypergirliness
o “Now that women allegedly have the same sexual freedom as men, they actually
prefer to be sex objects because it’s liberating”
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- Transgender Rights
o transgender washrooms
“Put women + child in danger to have transgender bathrooms”
People will pretend to be trans to assault
Evidence shown they do NOT pretend to be a trans
They could dress up as women anytime ANYWAY
public transgender washrooms have always been there, but no one cared
White Feminism?
- Eg) Blacklivesmatter => Alllivesmatter
We are not recognizing that we are not ALL THE SAME
- White Feminism: paints a picture of what it needs to be a woman
o Ignores the role whiteness plays
- Close wage gap between women + men
o BUT most of the time: affects women of color
- Gender expression could be smooth/difficult for diff person
o White (Dominate perspective) + CIS (ppl that look like conventional gender)
CIS: ppl who identifies with the sex they were born with
o Non CIS: not easy to identify (ppl who do not hv the privilege)
o Easy to live a life like Taylor Swift but not Nicki Minaj
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SOC 275: Lecture #2
Gender & Biology
- Gender essentialism isn’t real
o Gender essentialism is the attribution of a fixed essence to women
o Women’s essence is assumed to be universal + is generally identified with
characteristics that are specifically feminine
- The whole stereotype that women + men communicate in significantly diff ways has
resulted in a society where women’s words are dismissed as frivolous + inconsequential
AND men aren’t allowed to have emotions at all
Biological determinism
- The assumption that biology causes differences between men + women
Biology Produces Differences
- Genetics => Brain/hormones => Behaviours => Social inequality
o Eg) men are more aggressive than women bcuz of hormones = that creates social
order where men dominate women
o
- BUT
1) No room for social: Reductionalist
No room for sociological understanding
Fails to recognize the role environmental plays
To be human = is to be social
Can’t be fully human w/o social interaction with others
All that are done/shaped by how you were raised
All circumstances: such as maternal + part time jobs + house work
Women are pushed to be the nurturing role instead of born into
Reinforce the gendered roles
2) Society =/ sum of individuals
Social is important bcuz of circumstances + environment
3) Supporting evidence?
Testosterone = aggression
o Experiment: remove testis of men = aggression
o Result: no relationship
o Men who act more aggressively = leads to rate of
testosterone (not the other way around)
o = Social hierarchy determines interaction
- CONCLUSION:
o Cannot think in terms of an effect of biology + an effect of the environment =
both are always interacting
Bio + nature + social = interact with one another; can’t separate
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