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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ivanka Knezevic

Listening to Rap: Cultures of Crime, Cultures of Resistance • The notion that rap is or can be rep’d as cultural resistance has become increasingly prominent in the rap literature over the past 20 • Serious fans of rap music are different from other young music listeners – they are more inclined to crime and delinquency and more likely to subscribe to resistant attitudes and beliefs • There is significant cross-cultural variations in how the music is received • Rap’s appeal is as much about class as it is about race • Black people still comprise the central component of the rap audience (57%) o White people make up 8.6% o Asians make up 9.5% • Property and violent crime demonstrate strong independent effects on listening to rap music o Inds more involves in property crime and violent crime are more likely to be “Urban Music Enthusiasts” than inds with little or no crim involvement o Involvement in property crime and violent crime is strongly related to an appreciation of rap music, net of other factors, among white and Asian/SouthAsian youth only o The group that doesn’t fit this pattern is black youth, whose involvement in property and violent crime is not predictive of being an “Urban Music Enthusiast” Intellectualization andArt World Development: Film in the United States • Valorize: to establish and maintain the price of (a commodity) by governmental action • Film was valorized through the institutionalization of various resources and practices by a range of actors in the art world for film o Beginning soon after film’s emergence and intensifying in the late 1950s to late 1960s. b/w the late 1920s and the early 1950s, this process occurred only in isolated instances. But in the 1960s the coincidence of factors described above created the trust necessary for a major turning point in perceptions of the artistic status of film  The changing opportunity space not only facilitated the success of efforts to valorize film but also encouraged the movement to treat film as art • Author argues that the intellectualization of film did not require an increase in the artistic nature of film content, but it is impossible to prove that such an increase did not occur and did not encourage the development of a legitimating ideology o The evidence suggests that the content of films is not the only determinant of whether and to what degree it is intellectualized • Early film reviews were much less likely to use a ‘high art’vocabulary and critical techniques than were book reviews of the period o By 1970, film reviews and book reviews converge in their use of these terms and techniques as well as in their overall length Processing Fads and Fashions:An Organization-Set Analysis of Cultural Industry Systems • Organizations engaged in the production and mass distribution of ‘cultural’items are often confronted by highly uncertain environment at their input and output boundaries • Insofar as one of its goals is to create and satisfy consumer demand for new fads and fashions, every consumer industry is engaged to some extent in the production of cultural goods, and any consumer good can thus be placed along the implied continuum between cultural and utilitarian products • The term ‘cultural organization’refers here only to profit-seeking firms producing cultural products for national distribution • This paper has outlined the structure of entrepreneurial organizations engaged in the production and distribution of cultural items and has examined three adaptive strategies employed to minimize dependence on elements of their task environments: the deployment of contact men to organizational boundaries, overproduction and differential promotion of new, and the cooptation of mass- media gatekeepers • The goals of cultural and mass-media organizations come into conflict over two issues o Public opinion, professional ethics, and, to a lesser extent, job security, all require institutional gatekeepers maintain independent standards of judgement and quality rather than endorse only those items which cultural orgs elect to promote o The primary goal of commercial mass-media orgas is to maximize revenue
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