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SOC317H5 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Mcdonald'S, Shake Shack, Ray Oldenburg

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Josee Johnston
Study Guide

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Soc317 – Test 2 Notes 2016-02-27 10:01 PM
Shopping Conclusions (Lecture 4)
Karl Marx and Alienation
Alienation, feeling detached from life/work, process, control and
output of work life
Capitalism is far from ideal
Compensatory Mechanism: shopping is done as a form of control
and creativity
Shopping is one part of our life that we feel we can control and be
Shopping has changed with capitalism
There are multiple meanings and motivations
We struggle to combine equality and hierarchy with pleasure and
Fast Food (Lecture 4)
Omnivores, we have lots of choices on what to eat and sometimes it is hard
to decide
Hamburger History
It is a modern meal
Around 1890’s-1905, was the first time someone combined a patty
with a bun by outdoor vendors
White Castle, first place to sell hamburgers and took the Fordism
McDonald’s, started as a hotdog stand and Mike Crock joined the
chain and pushed them to expand. It is now the most recognizable
brand in the world.
It is a symbol of American globalization
Today more and more people are eating at fancier places like
Gourmet Burger, many high end places had burgers that had fancy
Shake Shack, open by Danny Myer in NYC, he was known to open
big restaurants and brought $100 million/year.

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It was a fast-casual, fast food but elevated, it offered local, drug
free meat which was more expensive
The taste was secondary, it wanted to produce as many burgers as
possible and as cheap as possible (Fordism approach)
1970-2000, fast food chains increased a lot
1980-now, “rich get richer” peaked and foodie culture rose. They
wanted more natural and better food
Food became a way to show status (Shack Shake vs. McDonalds)
Politicization of Foods, people have increased health and
environment awareness .
Expenditure Cascade: Robert Frank said people at top spend more
resources. Triggered by conspicuous consumption, changes trend
and lower class people begin to spend more also. Chipotle and
Shack Shake changed expectations on how much a burger should
Omnivores in Sociology
High status consumption combined with high and low culture like a
hamburger with fancy expensive ingredients
Univores, high status people who only consume high status
Criteria used on fast foods: Authenticity and Exoticism
Authenticity, simple, geographically specific, personal connection
(only one person can make it), history and tradition and ethnic
connection (certain ethnic groups working in the same ethnic
restaurant). There is no pure authenticity
Exoticism, geographically distant and norm-breaking (usually
looked at by males)
Perfect Burger
o Combines elements of authenticity and exoticsm
o Shows that its originally a low comfort food but has
something special that makes it higher status
The Real Cost of A Burger
True cost does not equal the price we pay

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Externalities: cost of something not reflected in the price
Key ones are carbon generation and obesity
Including externalities a burger cost could go up from 68 cents to
almost 3 dollars
Future generations would have to deal with carbon generation
Labor and Fast-Food
Most consumers do not care about labor, wages are low for them
Gap between CEO and fast food worker is largest in the world
In Denmark, a McDonalds worker earns $20/hour and apart of a
Fast food workers rely on government money and cost the state
By sociologist George Ritzer
Pioneered system of institutionalized production
Focused on Weber’s iron cage concept
Rules became like a prison
5 Features: efficiency, calculability, predictability, control and
irrationality of rationality (produce long-term irrationalities like
human health)
Fast Food and Microinteractions by Amy Best
Teens in France love McDonalds because it was a more causual
Fast food situations are context specific, emotional and
Corporations shape consumers and consumption but consumers
create their own meaning to the commodity.
Coffee (Lecture 5)
Taste is a social phenomenon
Someone having good taste = classy
Identity comes from consumption (McDonalds vs. Gourmet)
Consumption shows wealth or inferiority
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