SOC323-exam notes

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Zachary Levinsky

Short Answer Questions 1) Discuss 5 legal components of the sidewalk (or 5 elements of the 'legal anatomy of the sidewalk') as advanced by Valverde. This is an example of the question about Valverde. Obviously its very long but its stuff pulled out from the reading. Valverde discusses 9 elements of the sidewalk, however I have chosen 6 elements that contribute to the legal anatomy of the sidewalk. These 5 are: street food, begging, entertainment, skateboarding, and snow removal. To begin with street food, valverde discusses how the taking away of carts that sell hot dogs every evening is municipal and costs a large amount of money each year. She discuses the importance of licensing and that each license is site specific hence the vendor is not allowed to move even a few feet along the sidewalk, even if that were due to weather conditions (too much sun/rain). Plus, these street food carts are only limited to a handful of choices and the provincial public health by law restricts those cart based vendors to hot dogs.Although there was an effort to incorporate ethnic and healthy foods in these carts, health officials demanded that only food that is already approved and commercialized be sold. This cut off opportunities to new comers in canada who thought with a legal reform could sett up their own street food vending business. Law is seen in the streets through ice cream trucks as well as they are prohibited to play their truck music after dusk, even if there are no residences in the vincitiy. Begging: Valverde explains that even begging is a regulated activity in toronto and else where in ontario by the Safe Streets Act which was passed by the neoconservation provincial gov in the late 1990s. The law prohibits begging near bank machines at the north east corner.Agreesive panhandling is not allowed either. It also prohibits enterprising activities such as squeezing. Using the sidewalk to rest: Valverde explains that although laying down or sleeping on the sidewalk is not forbidden in the city of toronto, camping isn't allowed on sidewalks or in city parks. It is already so difficult to sleep or even take short naps outdoors, that too without protection or in cold weather seasons. Even sitting down on the sidewalk is seen as obstructing pedestrian traffic. Local activists use the phrase "the criminalization of homelessness" for many cities, but this doesn't necessarily apply to Toronto as loitering or begging isn't prohibited but its definitely restricted by parks by laws and by site specific bylaws (city hall). The Trespass to PropertyAct is what authorizes guards and police officers to move people who are sleeping in privately owned spaces. Valverde claims that this act is more used to govern visibly indigent people than actual criminalization. Skateboarding: Toronto does not prohibit skateboarding in any legal code of general application, however much ingenuity has been used to make skateboarding psychically impossible in the streets of For example, the decorative benches are fitted to the ground for the sole reason that skateboarders cannot access that space. Valverde claims that the metal bits can be seen as coercive substitute for properly passed laws. She explains that althoug skateboarding is not considered illegal, things such as the metal bits on the benches constitute to he governance of skateboarders, ensuring that they do not use that area to skateboard. Snow removal: "Be nice, clear the ice" posters in Toronto indirectly address the compulsory actions that owners and occupiers must take to shovel snow and remove ice from sidewalks that abut their property within 24 hours of a snowfall. This shows that the law extracts labour from its citizens and labels it as "Canadian niceness". Consequences for not cleaning the ice or snow follow through if any pedestrians or customers injure themselves. Sidewalk trees: Braverman's study suggest that entities placed in sidewalk planters or small holes covered by grates is more than biological, it is a hybrid of vegetable matter and regulatory material. Adminstrative law scholars call the placement of trees regulation rather than law. The placement of trees, their depth of planting, and their location are considered technical standards rather than law. However, Valverde claims that technical tree standards are part of the legal apparatus that literally constructs the experience of walkings on the sidewalk. 2) Discuss the 'traffic code'. What are the implications of, what Blomley refers to as, this highly 'liberal geography'? -beggar has just as much right to be there than you -you cannot impede on each other -traffic goes in certain ways -crowding cannot occur, shoveling -encounter between actor and sandwich board has 2 competing interests -everyone has a right to the streets -keep the flow going Implications of liberal geography -lecture 11 -Judith butler: San Fran had to become accessible to help ppl with wheelchairs -Brooklyn didn’t try to reform anything -certain areas get better treatments than certain areas (laws of the street) -Judith as the beggar 3) Discuss what Ewick and Silbey mean by the capacity of the law and explain what it means in relation to their typology of the common place of law - -law is in our everyday life -ewick and silbey interview everyday life individuals -the common place of the law is the culmination of the discussions, bringing together diverse threads that preoccupied the seminar: power, ideology, resistance social practice and interpretation -Those against the law - the have nots, see the law as a tool for prejudice and oppression. The law exists to marginalize them because they lack resources to fight it - they evade or act against it because they don't have the resources to act with it; the law is arbitrary in nature - it doesn't matter what the laws are, they will serve whomever is in power and marginalize those without Those before the law represent silence - they're not have nots but also not haves; law is external, omniscient, these people don't really ask any questions and just accept law as it is. This is probably most people - only noticing the law when it's brought to our attention or when it is absolutely necessary for them to use it (ie. their safety is in jeopardy) Those with the law - the haves, see the origins of law as a game that they can play to serve competitive self interests; law is there for them to manipulate in order to achieve their goals and interests - 4) From Akwasi's lecture, discuss representations of Black criminality and what is meant by 'symbolic assailants'. Symbolic Assailants -Skolnick’s (1966) observations of police work in “Westville” led him to conclude that (pp. 45 and 49, emphasis added): The policeman. . . . develops a perceptual shorthand to identify certain kinds of people as SYMBOLIC ASSAILANTS, that is, as persons who use gesture, language, and attire that the policeman has come to recognize as a prelude to violence. . . The patrolman in Westville, AND PROBABLY MOST COMMUNITIES, has come to identify the black man with danger (Autho
More Less

Related notes for SOC323H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.