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soc 345 exam review

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SOC 345 Exam Review Key Course Concepts 1. Agency Refers to the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices Agency The creativity of actors in 'naming' themselves and others, and in 'framing' their issues, thereby mobilizing interests and making their opportunities. 2. Austerity Measures Austerity is a policy of deficit-cutting, lower spending, and a reduction in the amount of benefits and public services provided. Austerity policies are often used by governments to reduce their deficit spending while sometimes coupled with increases in taxes to pay back creditors to reduce debt Austerity measures are typically taken if there is a threat that a government cannot honor its debt liabilities. Effects of Austerity Measures: Development projects, welfare, and other social spending are common programs that are targeted for cuts. Taxes, port and airport fees, and train and bus fares are common sources of increased user fees. Austerity programs can be controversial, as they tend to have an adverse impact on the poorest segments of the population. In many situations, austerity programs are implemented by countries that were previously under dictatorial regimes, leading to criticism that the citizens are forced to repay the debts of their oppressors. Austerity: neoliberalism at a global level. Cut backs in social services. The fact that we are all in this together/we all have a part in the recession so we all have to take cut backs. Unions are forced to take cuts thus pay cuts on the workers. 3. Canadas Post-war Compromise The post-war social compromise in Canada, as in other capitalist democracies, recognized that there could be no return to the economic and social order that engendered the Great Depression Canadas Post-War Compromise: Welfare state regulatory regime THE STATE: social programs; economic stability Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) 1966 1996 (Regulated tax transfer: health, education, welfare) CAPITAL: taxes; stable labour force, expansion Obligation of corporate taxes as normative LABOUR: union discipline; family wage ideal Standard Employment Relationship (SER) (permanent, full-time, high wage, social safety) 4. Commons Compounded effects (compounded poverty) Compounded Poverty (Effects) Linked to social policy. Compounded poverty (or the compounded effects of poverty) refers to the interactive and cumulative impacts of social policy decisions on a population. Deepening and chronic poverty has been linked to the compounded effects of long- term social policy reduction in neoliberalism. ???????????? + ? The Commons A finite resource whose mode of disposition and usage is determined by the community of its users and producers (not the state or capital). Basic Principle: primacy of the collectivity and the general interest Operational requirements: i. Management of land and natural resources ii. Production and reproduction of social life (i.e., care work, housing, education, labour, food etc.) iii. Production and allocation of energy, knowledge and information Ex. Eating in Public (Sharma and Chan) Austerity and Global Capitalism: The Commons: Land belonging, in perpetuity, to the community as a whole. Self-sustenance, historically, depended on the ability of people to common (hunt, farm etc.). Commoning as a way of life for people to remain free from bondage by states or private interests. Reorganize land and convert space into two forms: i. private/capitalist property ii. Public/state space, services, sectors Creation of new subject of liberal democratic states system: citizen worker as national citizen5. Discourse Discourse Fundamental claims about the nature of social reality. Discourses .... shape ideas (ideology) are problem-setting frameworks are sets of statements that 'define, describe, and delimit what it is possible to say and not possible to say ... with respect to the area of concern ... Discourse KWS: Social NL: Individual Choice and Citizenship/Entitlement Rights and Privileges Paid employment (Standard Paid employment (Non- standard employment; dual Employment Relationship breadwinner model, family wage) income; precarious work Public/social provisions (safety net and labour market policy Public/social provisions minimum wage, EI, public sector (dismantling welfare state; jobs, ESA, workers compensation) welfare to workfare) Informal supports (hidden I
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