SOC 345 Exam Review
Key Course Concepts
Refers to the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free
The creativity of actors in 'naming' themselves and others, and in 'framing' their
issues, thereby mobilizing interests and making their opportunities.
2. Austerity Measures
Austerity is a policy of deficit-cutting, lower spending, and a reduction in the amount of
benefits and public services provided. Austerity policies are often used by governments to
reduce their deficit spending while sometimes coupled with increases in taxes to pay back
creditors to reduce debt
Austerity measures are typically taken if there is a threat that a government cannot honor
its debt liabilities.
Effects of Austerity Measures: Development projects, welfare, and other social spending
are common programs that are targeted for cuts. Taxes, port and airport fees, and train and
bus fares are common sources of increased user fees.
Austerity programs can be controversial, as they tend to have an adverse impact on the
poorest segments of the population. In many situations, austerity programs are
implemented by countries that were previously under dictatorial regimes, leading to
criticism that the citizens are forced to repay the debts of their oppressors.
Austerity: neoliberalism at a global level. Cut backs in social services.
The fact that we are all in this together/we all have a part in the recession
so we all have to take cut backs. Unions are forced to take cuts thus pay
cuts on the workers.
3. Canadas Post-war Compromise
The post-war social compromise in Canada, as in other capitalist democracies, recognized
that there could be no return to the economic and social order that engendered the Great
Depression Canadas Post-War Compromise: Welfare state regulatory regime
THE STATE: social programs; economic stability
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) 1966 1996 (Regulated tax transfer: health,
CAPITAL: taxes; stable labour force, expansion
Obligation of corporate taxes as normative
LABOUR: union discipline; family wage ideal
Standard Employment Relationship (SER) (permanent,
wage, social safety)
4. Commons Compounded effects (compounded poverty)
Compounded Poverty (Effects)
Linked to social policy.
Compounded poverty (or the compounded effects of poverty) refers to the
interactive and cumulative impacts of social policy decisions on a population.
Deepening and chronic poverty has been linked to the compounded effects of long-
term social policy reduction in neoliberalism.
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A finite resource whose mode of disposition and usage is determined by the
community of its users and producers (not the state or capital).
Basic Principle: primacy of the collectivity and the general interest
i. Management of land and natural resources
ii. Production and reproduction of social life (i.e., care work, housing, education,
labour, food etc.)
iii. Production and allocation of energy, knowledge and information
Ex. Eating in Public (Sharma and Chan) Austerity and Global Capitalism:
Land belonging, in perpetuity, to the community as a whole. Self-sustenance,
historically, depended on the ability of people to common (hunt, farm etc.).
Commoning as a way of life for people to remain free from bondage by states or
Reorganize land and convert space into two forms:
i. private/capitalist property
ii. Public/state space, services, sectors
Creation of new subject of liberal democratic states system: citizen worker as
national citizen5. Discourse
Fundamental claims about the nature of social reality. Discourses ....
shape ideas (ideology)
are problem-setting frameworks
are sets of statements that 'define, describe, and delimit what it is possible to say
and not possible to say ... with respect to the area of concern ...
KWS: Social NL: Individual Choice and
Citizenship/Entitlement Rights and Privileges
Paid employment (Standard Paid employment (Non-
standard employment; dual
breadwinner model, family wage) income; precarious work
Public/social provisions (safety
net and labour market policy Public/social provisions
minimum wage, EI, public sector (dismantling welfare state;
jobs, ESA, workers compensation) welfare to workfare)
Informal supports (hidden I