• Black and Horowitz – 9 questions. (Lectures
• Scull – 3 questions. (Lectures + readings)
• Szasz – 3 questions. (Lectures + readings)
• Rosenhan 3 questions. (Lectures + readings)
• Spitzer (criticism of Rosenhan) – 1 question (Lectures + readings)
• Scheff – 2 questions (Lectures + readings)
• Goffman – 1 question. (Lectures + readings)
Black and Horowitz 9 questions. (Lectures + readings).
1. Why does ‘pure sociology’ ignore people? What was the main reason of Donald
a. The proper subject of sociology is the behaviour of social life rather than
the behaviour of people, and that sociology would ultimately become what
it had always claimed to be: a distinctive science with its own subject
b. He chose to do this to separate it from psychology; to make it its own
2. What is the social geometry of social life?
a. Its location and direction in social space
b. Explaining the behaviour of law with the geometry of each case
c. What is its social structure, the shape of social space where it occurs?
d. Social space is multidimensional, including vertical, horizontal, cultural,
corporate, and normative elements
3. Please elucidate Black’s sentence: “Social space is multidimensional, including
vertical, horizontal, cultural, corporate, and normative elements”. Please name
those dimension (as many as you can). Try to explain their relationships.
4. What is ‘the quantity of law’?
a. The amount of gov’t social control from one case to another
b. Criminal law increases with such actions as a call to the police, an arrest, a
prosecution, a conviction, and each degree of severity in punishment
c. Civil law increases with such actions as the initiation of a lawsuit, victory
for the plaintiff, and each degree of severity in the remedy
5. Please explain what ‘style of law’ is? How many of them did mention D.Black?
a. Penal, compensatory, conciliatory, or therapeutic
6. What is D.Black’s conception of sociology as a science?
a. Believes it essentially is the science of society so saying it shouldn’t be
scientific is saying sociology shouldn’t exist
7. Please elaborate Black’s expression: “As long as the sociological subject is
something very close to you yourself, the theory of scienticity predicts you will
have little appetite for scientific sociology”. Why does Black think it is equally
true for culture, religion, and art? a. Black believes that the closer you are to something, the less likely you are
to think of it in scientific terms.
i. You will prefer other forms of knowledge, including common
8. How does Black describe the behavior of God?
a. Some social structures attract supernatural beings with enormous powers
over everyday life, for instance, whereas others do not
b. The involvement of God is a quantitative variable that varies with His
geometry. Praying to God is analogous to calling the police: it is an
increase of God’s involvement in a particular location and direction in
social space. Like law, the behavior of God depends on its vertical
direction. Unlike law, God is more active in an upward direction (toward
social superiors) than in a downward direction (toward social inferiors).
9. Please explain the idea of law as a form of partisanship.
a. Law is a form of partisanship because it takes sides. It takes the side of
one person over another. The law is a partisan for the winner of the case.
b. Partisanship is a direct function of the social closeness and superiority of
one side and the social remoteness and inferiority of the other
10. Please elaborate Black expression: “The conception of law taught in law schools
— the same law for all cases of the same kind — is a myth”.
a. Equality before the law does not describe the actual operation of any
known legal system, past or present.
b. Law differs from one case to another. It changes with the social structure
of the cases. It is situational.
11. What are the two principles of legal behavior? Do you agree with them? Please
elaborate your answer. (P. 115).
a. Inequality before the law is a direct function of the social diversity of the
i. Social differences in the cases result in legal differences in how
they are handled – who wins, what happens to the loser, and so on.
b. The social diversity of the cases is legally relevant only to the extent that
social information about the cases enters the legal process
i. If the social location of a case is unknown, its social location is
12. What is the desocialization of law?
a. We could reduce or eliminate inequality before the law simply by reducing
or eliminating the social information that presently enters the legal process
i. It would effectively erase, to one degree or another, the social
location of the cases.
ii. Eliminate social information about w/e kind of discrimination you
wish to elimination, then, and the discrimination will disappear.
13. Why does closeness to the subject hinder anthropologist’s ability to produce
a. Very close subjects attract less scienticity
b. Many anthropologists have a humanistic conception of their field, and they are sometimes openly hostile to scientific theory about human
14. Please elaborate, according to Black’s conception of law, why Breivik was
convicted as a sane person, even if there were some expert’s doubts about his
sanity. Please apply the same argument to the serial killers.
The logic of social control (Horowitz)
1. What is the normative conception of social control? (P. 8 – 9)
a. Specific attempts to influence deviance and conformity
b. In this conception, social control is limited to purposive actions that
define, respond to, and control deviant behaviour.
c. Identifies social control with intentional efforts to respond to deviant
behaviour, not with all processes that contribute to social control.
2. Please read the terms on the pages 12 – 15. Try to remember and elaborate them.
How do they relate to Black’s conception of social geometry?
a. Relational distance: the degree of intimacy b/w people as indicated by
factors such as the number and types of interactions b/w them, the
intensity and length of their relationship and the nature of their ties
b. Uniplex relationships: social relationships marked by a single limited type
of exchange. These might include b/w a customer and merchant; physician
and patient, etc
c. Multiplex relationships: social relationships that feature more than one
type of exchange. Examples include community members who patronize
each others’ businesses, attend the same churches, and engage in common
leisure activities; colleagues at the workplace who are also friends
d. Crosscutting ties: people who have social relationships to both parties in a
dispute. If A and B are disputants, and C is A’s brotherinlaw and B’s
employer, C would be a crosscutting tie b/w A and B
e. Social network: the pattern of structural ties of an ind in a social field
f. Social integration: the presence of many ties to family, kin, work,
education, religious, and informal orgs
g. Marginality: absence of ties to fam, kin, work, etc
h. Individualistic groups: groups organized around the principle that inds are
the key units of social structure and feature values promoting autonomy
i. Holistic groups: groups organized around communal obligations that value
group cohesion rather than individual independence
j. Rank: an ind’s position in the prestige hierarchies of a group
k. Dominant: an ind with superior power in a relationship
l. Dependent: an ind with inferior power in a relationship
m. Stratification: distribution of valued resources in a social group
n. Organization: the degree to which a collectivity possesses structured roles,
common purpose, and a capacity for collective action
o. Inward social control: applied by a marginal person to an integrated person. Usually responds to outward deviance committed by integrated
people against marginal ones
p. Outward social control: applied by an integrated person to a marginal one.
Usually responds to inward deviance committed by marginal people
against integrated ones
q. Insider social control: social control b/w integrated people
r. Outsider social control: social control b/w marginal people
s. Downward social control: social control that a dominant party applies to a
dependent on. Usually responds to upward deviance.
t. Upward social control: social control that a dependent parties applies to a
dominant one. Usually responds to downward deviance.
3. What is the style of social control?
a. Penal, compensatory, therapeutic, conciliatory
4. Please read the table on the page 22. Try to explain ALL elements of major styles
of social control.
i. Harm: value
ii. Liability: individual
iii. Goal: retribution
iv. Solution: punishment
i. Harm: material
ii. Liability: group
iii. Goal: settlement
iv. Solution: payment
i. Harm: relational
ii. Liability: shared
iii. Goal: reconciliation
iv. Solution: negotiation
i. Harm: personality
ii. Liability: none
iii. Goal: normality
iv. Solution: treatment
5. What are elements of the penal style?
a. Central aspect is to inflict pain or other unpleasant circumstances on
offenders who have committed blameworthy acts
b. Moralistic style that aims to punish offenders who have broken some legal
or extralegal standard of behaviour
6. What is the nature of harm?
a. The harm is to the core moral values of the society, therefore it varies in
7. Please read and remember the main predictors of the penal style.
a. Relational distance: the closer the distance b/w contesting parties, the less
the likelihood of a penal response to grievances i. As social distance increases, the chance of penal control grows
1. Penal social control is directly related to the relational
distance b/w offenders and social control agents
2. The most marginal members of society, such as vagrants,
migrants, and the homeless are most likely to receive
1. Penal control is inversely related to the relational distance
b/w victims and social control agents
2. People are more likely to pursue vengeance when their
intimates have been victimized
a. Ex. Parents are more likely to seek punishment if
their own children have been harmed
b. Work ties
i. Penal control is inversely related to the presence of crosslinkages
ii. Crosscutting ties decreases the likelihood of penal social control
because many persons find it in their interest to mediate peaceful
settlements rather than be drawn into vengeful feuds
i. Penal control varies directly with inequality
ii. Downward control
1. If superiors must sanction subordinates, the penal style will
often be inevitable
iii. Upward control
1. The response of inferiors to the deviance of their superiors
2. The status of dependency inherently breeds hostility and
the desire to punish those who hold power
1. Penal control is directly related to inequality in groups
a. Tribal societies marked by relatively little inequality
rarely feature penal control
i. Assessment of responsibility on the guilty offenders
ii. Penal control is inverse to the presence of organization
1. Often difficult or impossible to implicate responsible
individuals when organizational deviance occurs
8. Please read and remember the main elements of hierarchy. Compare them to those
of Black’s theory.
9. What are elements of therapy?
a. Changes the personalities of impaired inds
b. People who enter therapeutic systems are not seen as morally wrong but as
victims of an illness process beyond their control 10. What is the nature of harm for the therapeutic style?
a. Disruptions to personalities activate therapeutic control systems
b. Results when the motivations behind deviant actions seem senseless,
incoherent, or unintelligible to observers
11. Please read and remember the main predictors of therapeutic style.
a. Relational distance: therapeutic control is inverse to the relational distance
i. Therapeutic control flourishes when problems arise b/w persons at
the closest relational distance
i. Women are more likely than men to provide therapy
c. Group ties
i. The style of therapeutic systems reflects the degree of group
ii. Communal therapies
1. The unique aspects of the patient’s personality are not
scrutinized b/c the explanation involves a ritualized
symbolic system common to all sick members of the group
iii. Individualistic therapies
1. Inverts the essential aspects of communal therapies
2. Symbols drawn from selfexperience are used to interpret
personality problems, not ritualized and communal symbols
3. Thrives where social bonding is weak
12. What is the difference between communal and individualistic therapies?
13. Please explain the meaning of the statement: “Therapeutic control is related to
a. Therapeutic control is often associated with the response to the problems
of dependents in interpersonal relationships
14. Please compare the role of hierarchy in the penal and therapeutic styles.
15. Please think how the therapeutic style may be turned to the penal style? How is it
possible in principle? Please find several examples of the merge the therapeutic
and penal styles.
Scull 3 questions. (Lectures + readings)
1. Please describe the difference in social control and deviance between modern
society and the other types of societies (the “three distinct features”). (P. 15)
Please describe why they are so important for the history of psychiatry.
a. The substantial involvement of the state, and the emergence of a highly
rationalized and generally centrally administered and directed social
b. The treatment of many types of deviance in insts providing a large
measure of segregation fom the surrounding comm c. The careful differentiation of diff sorts of deviance, and the subsequenet
consignment of each variety to the ministrations of ‘experts’
2. How were dependant persons treated in the middleAges? Who was responsible
for them? (p. 16 – 17).
a. The dependent had relied heavily on a haphazard and often ineffectual
tradition of Christian charity and almsgiving
b. Neither the Church nor inds made any serious effort to match aid to need
or to provide an organized response to specific problems of dependency.
3. Please describe ‘a major departure’in the handling of deviants. (p. 18 – 21). What
were the main factors of it?
4. Why did classification of the different types of deviants (e.g. ‘criminal’versus
‘crazy’) emerge? (p. 22 – 23)
a. Greatly increased emphasis on classification, both w/I and b/w insts,
amounted to a qualt change vis-à-vis eighteenth century insts. Careful
efforts were made to distinguish the criminal and the crazy, children, the
sick, and the deserving and the undeserving poor. Classificatory schemes
became a vital feature of the ‘well-ordered asylum’of the period.
5. What was the role of industrial capitalism in an institutional response to indigent?
(p. 24 – 27)
a. One of the earliest casualties of the developing capitalist system was the
old sense of social obligation towards the poor.
6. What were two broad classes of indigent? What was the logic of their
classification? How did this differentiation produce a number of newly organized
professions? (p. 28 – 33).
a. The deviant and the dependent.
i. This gave the opportunity to professionalize the diff spheres
1. What is the main argument of this chapter? Please peruse pages 135 – 137 in
order to understand the development of Scull’s argumentation.
a. Arguing that with the coming of the welfare state, segregative modes of
social control became, in relative terms, far more costly and difficult to
2. What were main causes of the fiscal crisis of mental institutions?
3. When did decarceration start as a state policy to manage mentally ill?
4. How decarceration did produce the growing ghettoization of the returning ex-
patients? 5. Please read pages 145 – 149 carefully. Notice how mental hospitals’population
had been waning from 1963 to 1969. Please compare it to the number of the first
admissions from 1950 to 1968. What might be concluded from the data? Look at
the average duration of hospitalization from 1966 – 1967 to 1969 -1970 and try to
give plausible explanation why the average hospitalization had changed
6. Please read ‘Conclusion’and restate main ideas of the book.
a. Argued that this shift in social control and practices must be viewed as
dependent upon and a reflection of more extensive and deep seated
changes in the social organization of advanced capitalist societies.
A.Scull. From Madness to Mental Illness
1. What is the main goal (the argument) of the article? Please restate it in a simple
language instead of Scull’s complicated style.
a. Paper seeks to provide a sociological account of one aspect of a highly
significant redefinition of the moral boundaries of English society: a
redefinition which saw the transformation of insanity from a vague,
culturally defined phenomenon afflicting an unknown, but probably small,
portion of the total population into a … (218)
b. Authors wants to focus attention rather closely on one central important
feature of this whole process – and that is just how that segment of the
medical profession which we now call psychiatry captured control over
insanity. (how those known in the early nineteenth century as mad-doctors
first acquired a monopolistic power to define and treat lunatics) (218)
2. What was the shift in the locus of responsibility for lunatics?
a. The shift in the locus of responsibility for lunatics went from the family
and the local community to a group of trained professionals who, by
reason of their expertise, claim to have a unique capacity for
understanding and treating them (219)
3. How did psychiatrists in England first gain control over lunatics?
a. During the course of the 18 century, these old, informal mechanisms
(keeping all deviants as communal and family responsibility) began to be
abandoned. In their place, the response to all forms of deviance assumed
an increasingly institutional form. There now emerged a number of
institutions specifically concerned with dealing with them as a separate
category; a process accelerated by the difficult of handling them in one of
the ordinary mixed insts (222)
b. It was at this stage that the medical profession first began to assert an
interest in lunacy.Anumber of doctors trying to gain a share of the
lucrative new business, and possibly also to improve the treatment of the
insane, began opening madhouses of their own and/or became involved in
efforts to set up charity hospitals for the care of lunatics (222) 4. A.Scull stated: The English medical profession at this time was composed of three
separate elements. What were those elements? Please describe them in details.
i. The elite’s doctors
ii. Generally possessed a medical degree
i. Had only recently severed their links with the barber’s trade; entry
into their ranks was usually by apprenticeship and their status was
distinctly lower than that of the physicians
i. Catered largely to the middle and lower classes; they too were
recruited by apprenticeship and lacked any real control over
licensing and entry
5. What was ‘moral treatment’of insane?
a. Ageneral, pragmatic approach which aimed at minimizing external,
physical coercion; and it has, therefore, usually been interpreted as
unproblematically ‘kind’and ‘human’.
b. “This involved treating the patient as much in the manner of a rational
being, as the state of mind will possibly allow”, rather than resorting to
motives of fear as a way of managing the patients (227)
c. actively sought to transform the lunatic, to remodel him into something
approximating the bourgeois ideal of the rational individual; and as part of
this process, an effort was made to create an environment which removed
the artificial obstacles which stood in the way of the ‘natural’tendencies
6. Why did the doctors have to accommodate ‘moral treatment’
7. How was invented the medical conception of insanity? Why was it very difficult
for the mad doctors?
8. Please describe the arguments that were used against ‘moral treatment’.
a. Its wholesale rejection of standard medical techniques natural ran counter
to the profession’s deep intellectual and emotional investment in the value
of their own theory and practice
9. Were those arguments based on scientific evidence?
Szasz 3 questions. (Lectures + readings) The Myth of Mental Illness
1. Please elaborate T.Szasz’s idea: ‘there are diseases of the brain, not of the mind’.
o He is saying that we cannot label mental illness because we know about
diseases of the brain, but we do not know anything about the domain of
the mind. Diseases of the brain have physical symptoms, whereas diseases
of the mind are just ‘problems in living’
2. What are ‘the two fundamental errors’? (p. 113)
o The view that diseases of the brain have physical symptoms whereas
diseases of the mind should have mental symptoms.
o First, physical symptoms can be associated to a neurological defect, a
disease of the skin or bone. Problems with thinking/living cannot be
associated to a defect or disease of the nervous system
o The second error is epistemological. It is an error pertaining not to any
mistakes in observation or reasoning, but rather to the way in which we
organize and express our knowledge. The error lies in making a
symmetrical dualism between mental and physical symptoms, a dualism
which is merely a habit of speech and to which no known observations can
be found to correspond.
3. Why is ‘the concept of mental illness unnecessary and misleading’?
o For those who regard mental symptoms as signs of brain disease, the
concept of mental illness is unnecessary and misleading. For what they
mean is that people so labeled suffer from diseases of the brain; and, if that
is what they mean, it would seem better for the sake of clarity to say that
and not something else.
4. Please analyze the meaning of the concept ‘problems in living’.
o The norm from which deviation is measured whenever one speaks of a
mental illness is a psychosocial and ethical one
Yet, the remedy is sought in terms of medical measures which – it
is hoped and assumed – are free from wide diffs of ethical values
o Man’s awareness of himself and of the world about him seems to be a
steadily expanding one, bringing in its wake an ever large burden of
understanding. This burden is to be expected and must not be
5. Please explain how the practice of medicine is intimately tied to ethics.
o Issues such as birth control, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia are ethical
debates in the field of medicine
6. Please summarize the text under subtitle CHOICE, RESPONSIBILITY, AND
PSYCHIATRY (p. 117 – 118). What is the main argument here?
o We cannot hide behind the skirt of an allexplaining conception of mental
illness. Man must be able to take responsibility for his actions instead of
blaming his problems on issues such as mental illness.
• “Is there a such thing as mental illness?”
o Argues that there is not • What is meant when it is asserted that someone is mentally ill?
o Believes that this notion now functions merely as a convenient myth
• For those who regard mental symptoms as