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VCC427H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fundamental Attribution Error, Social Loafing, Cognitive Dissonance

Visual Culture and Communication
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Study Guide

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Test #6
PSY100 – Test 6
L0101 MW 11-12
1. Health Psychology is the educational, research and clinical contribution of
Psychology to what three goals [3 marks]
1) the promotion and maintenance of health
2) the prevention and treatment of illness
3) the analysis and improvement of the health care system and health policy formation
2. Give two examples of adaptive and two examples of maladaptive ways that
one could behaviorally influence the impact of a stressor. [4 marks]
- Adaptive: one could seek help (therapy), engage in meditation, learn a new skill, etc…
- Maladaptive: one could use drugs or alcohol, gambling, sex, or any distraction
3. Explain how the Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary (SAM) system operates.
[4 marks]
- stress is perceived by the cerebral cortex which signals the hypothalamus to activate the
sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight). This stimulates the Adrenal Medulla glands
to secrete catecholimines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The effects are raised blood
pressure, irregular heart rate, sweating, and constriction of peripheral blood vessels.
4. List 4 positive emotion-focused coping strategies. [4 marks]
[any four, 1 mark each]
1. - Focused breathing/meditation
2. - Progressive muscle relaxation
3. - Cognitive restructuring
4. - Self hypnosis
5. - Anger management
6. - Thought stopping procedures
7. - Stress inoculation training
2. Give an example of both a stable and unstable internal attribution and both a
stable and unstable external attribution. [4 marks]
- stable internal attribution: I failed the test because I am stupid.
- unstable internal attribution: I failed the test because I didn’t study
- stable external attribution: I failed the test because the professor always makes unfair
- unstable external attribution: I failed the test because the test was unfair
3. What is the Mere Exposure effect and how does it contribute to attraction?
[3 marks]
- the mere exposure effect states that merely being exposed to something or someone will
make us prefer that thing or person over someone or something that we have not been
exposed to. It contributes to attraction in that the more we are exposed to someone or
something the more familiar it becomes to us and the more likely we are to like it.
4. What are the ABCs of attitudes? [3 marks]
A = affect (feelings)
B = behavior
C = cognitions (thoughts)
5. What is deindividuation and what are some circumstances where it might
occur? [3 marks]
- deindividuation is a loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension that can occur
when a situation allows one to feel anonymous
- it can occur when one is in a crowd, or when one is wearing a mask, or wearing a
uniform that many others are wearing, etc…
6. List 2 factors that can increase the likelihood of resistance to authority in
situations where one believes the authority figure is wrong. [2 marks]
1. 1) when someone has knowledge, expertise, or experience in the area
2. 2) when there is social support of others agreeing to resist as well
L0301 MW 3-4
1. Explain Lazarus’ concepts of primary and secondary appraisal and give an
example for each. [4 marks]
Primary appraisal is a cognitive appraisal of a stressor in the environment as being either
benign (irrelevant) or stressful (trouble), i.e., “Is this a threat to my well being?”. E.g., a
paper due is appraised as stressful whereas another assignment is viewed as easy to do. If
the primary appraisal states that the stimulus is trouble, then a secondary appraisal takes
place to decide if the person has the necessary resources to deal with the problem, i.e.,
“Do I have what it takes to deal with this?” E.g., you decide you can do the assignment if
you work hard and dedicate some time to it, or you decide that you can’t do it.
2. Give two examples of adaptive and two examples of maladaptive ways that
one could emotionally influence the impact of a stressor. [4 marks]
- Adaptive: be optimistic, look on the bright side, express emotions openly, share
problems with others
- Maladaptive: feel hopelessness, helplessness, or self-pity, suppress or hide emotions
3. List 4 of the effects of prolonged exposure to stress. [4 marks]
[any four, one mark each]
- suppress cellular immune functioning
- produces hemodynamic changes (increased heart rate and blood pressure)
- provokes irregular heart rhythms
- produces neurochemical imbalances (depression, panic disorder)
- atherosclerosis
- destruction of neurons in the hippocampus (memory impairment, senility)
4. List 3 ways to make the use of affirmations more effective. [3 marks]
1. 1) state affirmations in the positive (out loud, into the mirror)
2. 2) write them down on paper
3. 3) post them everywhere for repeated viewing
5. 5. Describe the Fundamental Attribution Error and provide an example.
[3 marks]
- The FAE is the tendency to overestimate internal dispositional factors and
underestimate external situational factors when making attributions about the causes of
other people’s behaviors. E.g., I see that the person beside me failed the test, thus I
assume it is because they are not very smart and do not take into account any situational
factors that may have contributed, such as, they had the flu and couldn’t study
6. List and explain the three components of Sternberg’s Love Triangle.
[3 marks]
1) Passion – fast developing physiological reaction of desire and lust for another
2) Intimacy – steadily developing physical and emotional closeness with another
3) Commitment – gradually developing cognitive agreement to be committed partners,
including fidelity and resource sharing
7. What are the 4 functions of attitudes discussed in the lectures? [4 marks]
1) a knowledge function to help organize and structure the environment
2) an instrumental function in helping maximize rewards and minimize punishments
3) an ego-defensive function by helping us deal with internal conflicts and defend against
4) a value-expressive function in helping us express ideals important to our self-concept
8. What is Cognitive Dissonance and how does one reduce it? [3 marks]
- cognitive dissonance is an aversive state that can arise when our attitudes and our
behaviors are not consistent. We can reduce dissonance by either changing our behaviors
to fit our attitudes or adjusting our attitudes to be consistent with our behaviors.
9. What are norms? Provide one example. [2 marks]
- norms are the unwritten rules and codes of behavior for a particular society
- e.g., not cutting in line in front of others, eating ice cream with a spoon, not wearing
clothes inside out, etc…
L0201 TR 1-2
2. What is stress? [4 marks]
Stress is a psychobiological process. Stress is a stimulus (stressors) like catastrophes
(earthquake, flood or war), life events (marriage, divorce) and circumstances (poverty,
overcrowding). Stress is a response (strain) both physiological and psychological. Stress
is a process where transactions between the person and environment lead to perceived
discrepancies between the demands of the situation and the resources of the person.