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Test #6 PSY100 – Test 6 L0101 MW 11-12 1. Health Psychology is the educational, research and clinical contribution of Psychology to what three goals [3 marks] 1) the promotion and maintenance of health 2) the prevention and treatment of illness 3) the analysis and improvement of the health care system and health policy formation 2. Give two examples of adaptive and two examples of maladaptive ways that one could behaviorally influence the impact of a stressor. [4 marks] - Adaptive: one could seek help (therapy), engage in meditation, learn a new skill, etc… - Maladaptive: one could use drugs or alcohol, gambling, sex, or any distraction 3. Explain how the Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary (SAM) system operates. [4 marks] - stress is perceived by the cerebral cortex which signals the hypothalamus to activate the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight). This stimulates the Adrenal Medulla glands to secrete catecholimines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The effects are raised blood pressure, irregular heart rate, sweating, and constriction of peripheral blood vessels. 4. List 4 positive emotion-focused coping strategies. [4 marks] [any four, 1 mark each] 1. - Focused breathing/meditation 2. - Progressive muscle relaxation 3. - Cognitive restructuring 4. - Self hypnosis 5. - Anger management 6. - Thought stopping procedures 7. - Stress inoculation training 2. Give an example of both a stable and unstable internal attribution and both a stable and unstable external attribution. [4 marks] - stable internal attribution: I failed the test because I am stupid. - unstable internal attribution: I failed the test because I didn’t study - stable external attribution: I failed the test because the professor always makes unfair tests - unstable external attribution: I failed the test because the test was unfair 3. What is the Mere Exposure effect and how does it contribute to attraction? [3 marks] - the mere exposure effect states that merely being exposed to something or someone will make us prefer that thing or person over someone or something that we have not been exposed to. It contributes to attraction in that the more we are exposed to someone or something the more familiar it becomes to us and the more likely we are to like it. 4. What are the ABCs of attitudes? [3 marks] A = affect (feelings) B = behavior C = cognitions (thoughts) 5. What is deindividuation and what are some circumstances where it might occur? [3 marks] - deindividuation is a loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension that can occur when a situation allows one to feel anonymous - it can occur when one is in a crowd, or when one is wearing a mask, or wearing a uniform that many others are wearing, etc… 6. List 2 factors that can increase the likelihood of resistance to authority in situations where one believes the authority figure is wrong. [2 marks] 1. 1) when someone has knowledge, expertise, or experience in the area 2. 2) when there is social support of others agreeing to resist as well L0301 MW 3-4 1. Explain Lazarus’ concepts of primary and secondary appraisal and give an example for each. [4 marks] Primary appraisal is a cognitive appraisal of a stressor in the environment as being either benign (irrelevant) or stressful (trouble), i.e., “Is this a threat to my well being?”. E.g., a paper due is appraised as stressful whereas another assignment is viewed as easy to do. If the primary appraisal states that the stimulus is trouble, then a secondary appraisal takes place to decide if the person has the necessary resources to deal with the problem, i.e., “Do I have what it takes to deal with this?” E.g., you decide you can do the assignment if you work hard and dedicate some time to it, or you decide that you can’t do it. 2. Give two examples of adaptive and two examples of maladaptive ways that one could emotionally influence the impact of a stressor. [4 marks] - Adaptive: be optimistic, look on the bright side, express emotions openly, share problems with others - Maladaptive: feel hopelessness, helplessness, or self-pity, suppress or hide emotions 3. List 4 of the effects of prolonged exposure to stress. [4 marks] [any four, one mark each] - suppress cellular immune functioning - produces hemodynamic changes (increased heart rate and blood pressure) - provokes irregular heart rhythms - produces neurochemical imbalances (depression, panic disorder) - atherosclerosis - destruction of neurons in the hippocampus (memory impairment, senility) 4. List 3 ways to make the use of affirmations more effective. [3 marks] 1. 1) state affirmations in the positive (out loud, into the mirror) 2. 2) write them down on paper 3. 3) post them everywhere for repeated viewing 5. 5. Describe the Fundamental Attribution Error and provide an example. [3 marks] - The FAE is the tendency to overestimate internal dispositional factors and underestimate external situational factors when making attributions about the causes of other people’s behaviors. E.g., I see that the person beside me failed the test, thus I assume it is because they are not very smart and do not take into account any situational factors that may have contributed, such as, they had the flu and couldn’t study 6. List and explain the three components of Sternberg’s Love Triangle. [3 marks] 1) Passion – fast developing physiological reaction of desire and lust for another 2) Intimacy – steadily developing physical and emotional closeness with another 3) Commitment – gradually developing cognitive agreement to be committed partners, including fidelity and resource sharing 7. What are the 4 functions of attitudes discussed in the lectures? [4 marks] 1) a knowledge function to help organize and structure the environment 2) an instrumental function in helping maximize rewards and minimize punishments 3) an ego-defensive function by helping us deal with internal conflicts and defend against anxiety 4) a value-expressive function in helping us express ideals important to our self-concept 8. What is Cognitive Dissonance and how does one reduce it? [3 marks] - cognitive dissonance is an aversive state that can arise when our attitudes and our behaviors are not consistent. We can reduce dissonance by either changing our behaviors to fit our attitudes or adjusting our attitudes to be consistent with our behaviors. 9. What are norms? Provide one example. [2 marks] - norms are the unwritten rules and codes of behavior for a particular society - e.g., not cutting in line in front of others, eating ice cream with a spoon, not wearing clothes inside out, etc… L0201 TR 1-2 2. What is stress? [4 marks] Stress is a psychobiological process. Stress is a stimulus (stressors) like catastrophes (earthquake, flood or war), life events (marriage, divorce) and circumstances (poverty, overcrowding). Stress is a response (strain) both physiological and psychological. Stress is a process where transactions between the person and environment lead to perceived discrepancies between the demands of the situation and the resources of the person. 3. Give two examples of adaptive, and two examples of maladaptive ways that one could cognitively influence the impact of a stressor. [4 marks] - Adaptive: do some cognitive restructuring, seek objective views, view stress as a challenge and failure as a learning opportunity, etc… - Maladaptive: use defense mechanisms like denial or rationalization, catastrophize the situation, overreact, allow irrational thinking 4. Explain how the Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) system operates. [4 marks] - the hypothalamus releases corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) which influences the Pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This causes the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids like cortisol that reduce inflammation and help the body return to a normal state after acute stress reactions. 5. List 3 positive problem-focused coping strategies. [3 marks] [any three, 1 mark each] 1. - Assertiveness/social skills training 2. - Time management 3. - Seek help from others 4. - Deal with the situation or stressor 6. Explain the difference between internal and external attributions. [4 marks] - internal attributions are inferences made about the causes of behaviors or events that consider the causes as being due to personality, traits, or personal dispositions. - external attributions are inferences made about the causes of behaviors or events that consider the causes as being due to things inherent in the situation, environment or context, external to the person 7. List 4 factors discussed in the lectures that contribute to our attraction to others. [4 marks] [any four, 1 mark each] 5. - proximity or functional distance 6. - physical attractiveness 7. - similarity 8. - reciprocal liking 9. - relationship rewards, operant conditioning 8. Explain the evolutionary gender differences regarding what makes a person jealous. [4 marks] - men are more distressed about sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity because throughout evolution men could not be sure that the child they were raising was their own if their partner had sex with someone else. - women are more distressed about emotional infidelity than sexual infidelity because emotional commitment to someone else created the threat that resources would be diverted to someone else 9. List 3 undesirable phenomena that can result from being in a group. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each] - deindividuation, panic, the risky shift, groupthink, social loafing, mob behavior L6001 TR 5-6 1. Explain the three types of stress identified by Lazarus and give an example for each. [3 marks] 1. 1) Loss (or harm/loss) – when someone loses a loved one or a possession. 2. 2) Threat – anticipated harm from something like worrying someone is going to beat you up or worried that you will get your heart broken, etc… 3. 3) Challenge – viewing the stressor as an opportunity for growth or a way to expand one’s abilities or competence 2. Identify and explain the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome. [5 marks] 1. 1) Alarm – fight or flight reaction triggered by some stressor. Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary (SAM) system is activated and body is readied for extreme action to deal with the situation. 2. 2) Resistance – stress is prolonged and eventually the Hypothalmic- Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) system is activated in an effort to calm the body and relax the body’s taxed resources and systems 3. 3) Exhaustion – if the stressor continues the body’s systems become overburdened and there is a weakening of immune and organ systems 3. List the four thinking problems discussed in the lectures that can occur as psychological responses to stress. [4 marks] - - problem solving difficulties - - ruminative thinking - - catastrophizing - - irrational thought patterns 4. Explain problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. [3 marks] - - problem-focused coping is aimed at reducing the demands of the stressful situation or expanding the resources available to deal with the stressor, i.e., dealing directly with the problem or situation - - emotion-focused coping is aimed at controlling the emotional response to the stressful situation 5. With regards to making attributions, explain the self-serving bias and provide an example. [3 marks] - the self-serving bias occurs when we make internal dispositional attributions for our successes and external situational attributions for our failures. E.g., I passed the test because I am smart, but I failed the test because it was written unfairly. 6. Which components of Sternberg’s Love Triangle make up Romantic Love, Hollywood Love and Companionate Love? [3 marks] Romantic Love = intimacy and passion Hollywood Love = passion and commitment Companionate Love = commitment and intimacy 7. List 4 reasons why we form groups according to Schutz’s Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation. [4 marks] 1. 1) psychological needs for group formation 2. 2) inclusion 3. 3) control 4. 4) affection 8. According to the lecture, what is a group? [2 marks] - a group is two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us” 9. How does being in a crowd lead to a greater likelihood of committing violent or unacceptable behavior? [3 marks] - - crowds can lead to deindividuation which is a loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension. When deindividuation is combined with the high states of arousal, and diffusion of responsibility created by being in a crowd, these factors can disinhibit violent or unacceptable behaviors - - [full marks should also be given if the student discusses convergence and contagion instead] ____ 1) Travis was piloting a small private jet. He was making his final approach through heavy fog, and when he finally broke through the fog cover at 150 feet he realized that the runway was 20 yards to his left. For an instant he experienced a sensation of total panic, but he quickly took action. With his heart still pounding he gave the plane full throttle in an attempt to clear the rapidly approaching trees. According to Selye's general adaptation syndrome, as Travis took action he was experiencing A. physiological exhaustion B. a resistance reaction C. an alarm reaction D. autonomic rebound ____ 2) In his studies on conformity, Asch found that if a group of persons espouses an opinion contradictory to one's own opinion, one is most likely to A. voice the group's opinion B. echo the opinion of the nearest group member C. voice one's own opinion, even though it's contradictory D. show mild symptoms of learned helplessness ____ 3) Which of the following statements regarding social loafing is not accurate? A. Social loafing is an inevitable outcome of group projects. B. As group size increases, social loafing becomes more likely. C. Recent evidence indicates that fatigue tends to increase social loafing. D. The social-loafing effect has been replicated in a number of studies using a variety of tasks. ____ 4) Which of the following is not a variable people use to stereotype other people? A. ethnicity B. gender C. occupation D. Any of these variables may be used. ____ 5) Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief period of mental stress A. can trigger acute symptoms of heart disease, such as myocardial ischemia B. have little, or no, impact on overall cardiac function C. can intensify chromic symptoms of heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis D. can trigger emotional responses such as depression and feelings of despair ____ 6) Constructive coping includes all of the following except A. confronting a problem directly B. inhibiting emotional reactions to stress C. reliance on the use of defense mechanisms D. making reasonably realistic appraisals of your coping resources ____ 7) Which of the following statements regarding stereotypes is accurate? A. Stereotypes are inevitably negative and unflattering. B. Ethnic and racial groups are the only targets of widespread prejudice. C. We see members of our own ingroup as more alike than the members of outgroups. D. Stereotypes are so pervasive that they are often activated automatically. ____ 8) The bystander effect is A. greater the more people there are in the group B. less the more people there are in the group C. unaffected by the size of the group D. greatest when the observer is the only one present ____ 9) In Weiten's studies, __________ turned out to be more strongly related to measures of mental health than scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale were. A. frustration B. conflict C. pressure D. change ____ 10) Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as A. hedonism B. dispositional attributional bias C. egocentrism D. individualism ____ 11) You've been invited to dinner at a nice restaurant on the final night of a TV mini- series you've been watching and thus find yourself confronted with A. pressure B. frustration C. an approach-avoidance conflict D. an approach-approach conflict ____ 12) Barbara's car has been running poorly lately. Whose advice is Barbara most likely to follow in order to make her car run better? A. her physician B. her uncle C. her mechanic D. her physics instructor ____ 13) Your unique ideas about how a college class should be run, what a typical straight "A" student is like, and how a typical professor will act are all examples of A. prejudices B. attitudes C. attributions D. social schemas ____ 14) Most of Conrad's friends consider him to be highly neurotic. It is likely that, compared to his friends, Conrad is A. less likely to perceive events as stressful B. more likely to "choke" under pressure C. less likely to use defensive coping strategies D. more likely to perceive events as stressful ____ 15) Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately A. 5 to 10 percent of the time B. 30 to 60 percent of the time C. 75 percent of the time D. 80 to 90 percent of the time ____ 16) The __________ controls the fight-or-flight response as a physiological reaction to a threat. A. autonomic nervous system B. pyramidal system C. central nervous system D. thalamus ____ 17) Love as the basis for marriage is A. unique to the United States B. a product of Asian collectivism C. virtually universal across all cultures D. an 18th-century invention of Western culture ____ 18) The Featured Study by Cohen and his colleagues showed that A. psychological stress can increase people's susceptibility to infectious disease B. when all possible confounding variables are controlled for, there is no longer any association between stress and vulnerability to infection C. the stress-illness association found in other studies is probably the result of an increased frequency of health-impairing habits in stressed subjects D. psychological stress only increases susceptibility to infectious disease in people with Type A personalities ____ 19) If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the A. false consensus effect B. situational attributional tendency C. self-serving bias D. fundamental attribution error ____ 20) The principle cause of coronary heart disease is A. atherosclerosis B. Alzheimer's disease C. diabetes D. burnout ____ 21) Individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity A. typically do not emerge until adulthood B. are acquired through classical conditioning C. have not been linked to the occurrence of stress-related illnesses D. probably contribute to susceptibility to heart disease ____ 22) Catastrophic thinking is characterized as involving A. personality disordered type of thinking B. thinking associated with neuroticism C. exaggeration of the magnitude of one's problems D. focusing on major stressors and ignoring the impact of minor frustrations ____ 23) According to Hazan and Shaver, romantic love is an attachment process, and people's intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments A. in infancy B. to their preschool playmates C. to their adolescent peers D. to their same-gender parent ____ 24) When the adrenal medulla is stimulated A. large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream B. the hormone ACTH is secreted C. corticosteroids are absorbed by the adrenal glands D. the parasympathetic nervous system is activated ____ 25) Herbert Benson devised a simple procedure, called the relaxation response, that can have beneficial health effects. To experience the full benefits, the procedure should be practiced A. on a daily basis B. whenever a person has to deal with a major stressor C. for a minimum of 50 minutes a day, three days per week D. only when traditional medical treatments produce no improvement ____ 26) Scott spent a great deal of time and money on becoming a member of a certain club, yet later discovered that the members of the club were boring. According to dissonance theory, Scott would most likely A. continue to extol the virtues of the club to his friends B. now "bad mouth" the club to his friends C. engage in denial and disengagement as part of his defensive attribution D. try to modify the behavior of the current club members ____ 27) Group cohesiveness refers to the A. degree to which group members agree about an issue B. strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself C. extent of polarization that occurs after group discussion D. tendency of groups to make more cautious decisions than individuals ____ 28) An actor's behavior being the same over time and across situations defines the covariation information referred to as A. consistency B. convergence C. consensus D. criterial ____ 29) The most likely initial consequence of an approach-avoidance conflict is A. approach B. vacillation C. avoidance D. withdrawal ____ 30) Which of the following could be an example of the fundamental attribution error? A. Ralph described himself as a failure. B. Ralph thought that the reason he failed was that he was sick that day. C. Jayne said Ralph failed because the test was unfair. D. Sue explained Ralph's failure in terms of his incompetence and laziness. 6mw11 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) ANS: B REF: 538 2) ANS: A REF: 680 3) ANS: A REF: 686 4) ANS: D REF: 658 5) ANS: A REF: 548 6) ANS: C REF: 542 Correct = 59% 7) ANS: D REF: 690 8) ANS: A REF: 684 Correct = 79% 9) ANS: C REF: 534 10) ANS: D REF: 664 Correct = 54% 11) ANS: D REF: 532 12) ANS: C REF: 673 Correct = 84% 13) ANS: D REF: 657 Correct = 61% 14) ANS: D REF: 531 15) ANS: B REF: 558 Correct = 73% 16) ANS: A REF: 537 Correct = 98% 17) ANS: D REF: 668 18) ANS: A REF: 550 19) ANS: D REF: 662 Correct = 49% 20) ANS: A REF: 546 Correct = 79% 21) ANS: D REF: 553 22) ANS: C REF: 561 23) ANS: A REF: 667 24) ANS: A REF: 538 Correct = 80% 25) ANS: A REF: 562 Correct = 81% 26) ANS: A REF: 676 27) ANS: B REF: 687 28) ANS: A REF: 660 Correct = 41% 29) ANS: B REF: 532 Correct = 26% 30) ANS: D REF: 661 ____ 1) All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors which promote relaxation except for A. developing a passive attitude B. drinking a small amount of alcohol C. being in a comfortable position D. focusing on a constant stimulus ____ 2) The Flashback football team had been down by 35 points at half-time, but they had made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock they made a touchdown that narrowed the other team's lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the dying seconds. As the team lines up for the final play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing A. frustration B. conflict C. burnout D. pressure ____ 3) The name Hans Selye gave to the body's response to stress is A. the fight-or-flight response B. the general adaptation syndrome C. catharsis D. defensive coping ____ 4) A group that one belongs to and identifies with is known as a(n) A. stereotype B. social schema C. outgroup D. ingroup ____ 5) Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such chronic diseases as lung cancer, emphysema, and stroke? A. smoking B. poor nutrition C. lack of exercise D. obesity ____ 6) Evidence from numerous studies of the bystander effect suggests that A. it is a widespread phenomenon B. it is limited to contrived laboratory situations C. it occurs only in urban ghetto areas D. there is much truth to the old saying that "there is safety in numbers" ____ 7) Which of the following is not typically a reason for noncompliance with medical advice? A. having a negative attitude for physicians B. failing to understand advice or instructions C. the degree of difficulty associated with following advice or instructions D. the cost of the medical treatment program ____ 8) Marriages arranged by families and other go-betweens remain common in cultures high in A. individualism B. collectivism C. self-perception D. self-monitoring ____ 9) Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority? A. Solomon Asch B. Daryl Bem C. Leon Festinger D. Stanley Milgram ____ 10) The Featured Study by Cohen and his colleagues showed that high-stress subjects had a higher incidence of colds than low-stress subjects. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are A. uncorrelated B. negatively correlated C. positively correlated D. multifactorial variables ____ 11) When Jerry thought he was the only person who was assigned the job of contacting alumni for a 15-year reunion, he spent several hours on the phone each evening trying to reach members of his graduating class. When he learned that eight other people were also working on contacting the alumni he spent only 30 minutes each night making phone calls. The process that would best explain the decrease in Jerry's effort when he learned that he was working as part of a larger group, is A. social interference B. social loafing C. the bystander effect D. social dissonance ____ 12) Actors and observers tend to give different explanations for the same instance of behavior because A. only actors themselves can accurately explain their own behavior B. only outside observers can accurately explain actors' behavior C. observers tend to possess more knowledge than the actors D. situational pressures may not be readily apparent to an observer ____ 13) The week of final exams subjects most students to what kind of stress? A. pressure B. change C. frustration D. conflict ____ 14) A man who believes that "women just don't make good leaders" may dwell on his female supervisor's mistakes and quickly forget about her achieve
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