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WGS200 Review for final exam.docx

9 Pages

Women and Gender Studies
Course Code
Victoria Tahmasebi- Birgani

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WGS200 Review
Transnational: “the movement of goods, bodies and ideas across national boundaries such that the
strict distinctions among nations become altered or more flexible”
The hegemony of neo-liberal economic agenda:
oNeo-liberalism: “the privatization policies created by Ronald Reagan in the 1980s in the US.
And Margaret Thatcher in the UK, that dismantled public programs and the state focus on
bettering the welfare of citizens. They claimed that privatizing such work was more efficient,
more economical and better.
Transnational Corporations
oEverything up for sale- i.e. Italian soccer team owned by someone in Kazakhstan
oThey are the institution through which globalization happens
oAn outcome of neo-liberalism
oExert powerful force on current global order
oOne and only one goal- making a profit
oIn 2013, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are
countries- more powerful than nation states
oThey influence what we eat/drink, where we live, what we wear, how we think, what
information we receive, how we get most of our essential services like health care and what
we are taught in school
oCreate and control our sources of information
oInfluence our gender selves, gender identities and gender relations
oTransnational feminism is a response
o13 main tenets of transnational feminism:
1. Gives voice to southern feminist agendas and perspectives (as of now, white feminism
was dominant)
2. Response to “global” and “international” feminisms- not only white agenda
3. Looks at interrelationships
4. Articulates issues as they take place through multiple related contexts- not just gender
equality but racism, poverty, etc.
5. Focuses on relationships and movements – i.e. trafficking of women and how different
countries profit from it
6. Problematizes a purely locational gender politics makes connections where links
are/made invisible
7. Freedom is interconnected
8. Focuses on world’s division of nations into “first” and “third” world nations
9. Roots in postcolonial studies, feminist and anti-racist theorizing and activism
10. Postcolonial discourse
11. Highlights differences among women- no illusion of sisterhood- not “generalized”
12. No one single set of ‘womens issues
13. Intersectional
oHistorical context of transnational feminism:
Response to womens participation in the UN’s International Decade for Women
Four world conferences on women: 1975 Mexico City, 1980 Copenhagen, 1985
Nairobi and 1995 Beijing
Significance of Beijing conference: Hilary Clinton
oShift in construction of gender
oBeijing: differences among women emerged
oObjection by women from the “south”
o“Solidarities across differences”; “transnational feminists efforts to
employ collective action frames as tools in their attempt to
acknowledge gender differences and build solidarities”
“Womens rights are human rights”
Gender-based abuses as human rights abuses
oCEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women)
Treaty for rights of women
Most comprehensive international agreement on basis human rights of women so far
“Bill of rights” for women
Addresses womens rights within political, civil, cultural, economic, legal and social
CEDAW enters into force through national ratification
Who signed CEDAW? Who hasn’t?
oImportant articles of CEDAW:
1. Country duties
2. Equality
5. Prejudice
6. Trafficking
7. Political and public life
8. International work
9. Nationality
10. Education
11. Employment
12. Health
13. Economic and social life
14. Rural women
15. Equality before the law
16. Marriage and family, including reproductive rights
oState’s obligations:
1. To incorporate womens equality in their legal system
2. To protect women in all areas of life
3. To eliminate discriminatory laws and practices
4. To put CEDAW in practice
oOne missing piece: violence against women not mentioned in 1979 CEDAW convention
o1992: General Recommendation 19 recognizes violence against women as
discrimination and recognizes gender-based violence impairs or nullifies the basic
rights of women
GR19 only international treaty that talks about violence against women as
Why did Womens Human Rights arrive so late?
oThree reasons: historical exclusion of gender, public/private split (womens issues seen as
private, not public concerns), the powerful have the power to write the law and there were
simply not enough women in positions of power
Important achievement
oGender mainstreaming since 1997; strategy for promoting gender equality but not an end in
Definition of gender mainstreaming: “concerns and experiences of women to be an
integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in all activities,
including policy development, research, advocacy, dialogue, legislation, resource
allocation, and planning, implementing and monitoring programs and projects in all
political, economic and societal spheres”
Problems and shortcomings:
oThree overarching problems:
Founded upon western ethical, political, philosophical norms and values
Universalist and essentialist- essentializes gender
Assumes to have cross-cultural applicability; looking at one issue while ignoring
others and assuming that issues are not related
Orientalism- Edward Said
Definition: “the acceptance in the West of the basic distinction between East and West as the starting
point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social descriptions, and political accounts concerning the
Orient, its people, customs, ‘mind’, destiny and so on.”
Basic description:
oThe intellectual authority over the orient
oWay of coming to terms with orient
oClear distinction between orient and occident
oManaging the orient
oFixing the orient in timelessness
oRelation of power, domination, and hegemony
oSignificance of cultural hegemony
Three dimensions to orientalism:
oMode of representation- us (civilized, rational) vs. them (barbaric and emotional)
oStyle of thought
oCorporate network of vested interests
The orient and the western self-conception
oContrast conception- creating identity of self by comparison
oSubject/object relationship- subject is an agent and object is passive
oOvergeneralization- removing specifities
1. Not a thing but a practice
2. Always about the subjugation of one people to another
3. When one society gradually expand and incorporate (by force) other territories
4. Etymology of the term colonialism
5. Involves uprootedness of indigenous population
Common patterns:
oPolitical and legal domination over others
oRelations of economics and political dependence
oExploitation of colonies by imperial powers
oRacial and cultural inequality
Definition: “colonialism occurs when one country or one culture exercise power over another,
whether through settlement or direct or indirect mechanisms of control.”
Example: Canada- first nations and our relation with them very exploitive
Gendering colonialism:
oFocus- studied white women in the colonies
oWhite women benefited from being members of “superior races” (i.e. memsahib)

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WGS200 Review Transnationalism • Transnational: “the movement of goods, bodies and ideas across national boundaries such that the  strict distinctions among nations become altered or more flexible” • The hegemony of neo­liberal economic agenda: o Neo­liberalism: “the privatization policies created by Ronald Reagan in the 1980s in the US.  And Margaret Thatcher in the UK, that dismantled public programs and the state focus on  bettering the welfare of citizens. They claimed that privatizing such work was more efficient,  more economical and better.” • Transnational Corporations o Everything up for sale­ i.e. Italian soccer team owned by someone in Kazakhstan o They are the institution through which globalization happens o An outcome of neo­liberalism o Exert powerful force on current global order o One and only one goal­ making a profit o In 2013, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are  countries­ more powerful than nation states o They influence what we eat/drink, where we live, what we wear, how we think, what  information we receive, how we get most of our essential services like health care and what  we are taught in school o Create and control our sources of information  o Influence our gender selves, gender identities and gender relations o Transnational feminism is a response o 13 main tenets of transnational feminism: 1. Gives voice to southern feminist agendas and perspectives (as of now, white feminism  was dominant) 2. Response to “global” and “international” feminisms­ not only white agenda 3. Looks at interrelationships 4. Articulates issues as they take place through multiple related contexts­ not just gender  equality but racism, poverty, etc. 5. Focuses on relationships and movements – i.e. trafficking of women and how different  countries profit from it 6. Problematizes a purely locational gender politics – makes connections where links  are/made invisible 7. Freedom is interconnected 8. Focuses on world’s division of nations into “first” and “third” world nations 9. Roots in postcolonial studies, feminist and anti­racist theorizing and activism 10. Postcolonial discourse 11. Highlights differences among women­ no illusion of sisterhood­ not “generalized”  issues  12. No one single set of ‘women’s issues’ 13. Intersectional o Historical context of transnational feminism:  Response to women’s participation in the UN’s International Decade for Women  (1975­1985)  Four world conferences on women: 1975 Mexico City, 1980 Copenhagen, 1985  Nairobi and 1995 Beijing • Significance of Beijing conference: Hilary Clinton o Shift in construction of gender o Beijing: differences among women emerged  o Objection by women from the “south” o “Solidarities across differences”; “transnational feminists’ efforts to  employ   collective   action   frames   as   tools   in   their   attempt   to  acknowledge gender differences and build solidarities”  “Women’s rights are human rights”  Gender­based abuses as human rights abuses  o CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women)  Treaty for rights of women  Most comprehensive international agreement on basis human rights of women so far  “Bill of rights” for women  Addresses women’s rights within political, civil, cultural, economic, legal and social  life  CEDAW enters into force through national ratification  Who signed CEDAW? Who hasn’t?  o Important articles of CEDAW: 1. Country duties 2. Equality 5. Prejudice 6. Trafficking 7. Political and public life 8. International work 9. Nationality 10. Education 11. Employment 12. Health 13. Economic and social life 14. Rural women 15. Equality before the law 16. Marriage and family, including reproductive rights o State’s obligations: 1. To incorporate women’s equality in their legal system 2. To protect women in all areas of life 3. To eliminate discriminatory laws and practices 4. To put CEDAW in practice o One missing piece: violence against women not mentioned in 1979 CEDAW convention o 1992:   General   Recommendation   19   recognizes   violence   against   women   as  discrimination and recognizes gender­based violence impairs or nullifies the basic  rights of women  GR19 only international treaty that talks about violence against women as  discrimination   • Why did Women’s Human Rights arrive so late? o Three reasons: historical exclusion of gender, public/private split (women’s issues seen as  private, not public concerns), the powerful have the power to write the law and there were  simply not enough women in positions of power • Important achievement o Gender mainstreaming since 1997; strategy for promoting gender equality but not an end in  itself  Definition of gender mainstreaming: “concerns and experiences of women to be an  integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in all activities,  including policy development, research, advocacy, dialogue, legislation, resource  allocation, and planning, implementing and monitoring programs and projects in all  political, economic and societal spheres” • Problems and shortcomings: o Three overarching problems:  Founded upon western ethical, political, philosophical norms and values  Universalist and essentialist­ essentializes gender  Assumes to have cross­cultural applicability; looking at one issue while ignoring  others and assuming that issues are not related Orientalism­ Edward Said • Definition: “the acceptance in the West of the basic distinction between East and West as the starting  point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social descriptions, and political accounts concerning the  Orient, its people, customs, ‘mind’, destiny and so on.” • Basic description: o The intellectual authority over the orient o Way of coming to terms with orient o Clear distinction between orient and occident o Managing the orient  o Fixing the orient in timelessness o Relation of power, domination, and hegemony o Significance of cultural hegemony  • Three dimensions to orientalism: o Mode of representation­ us (civilized, rational) vs. them (barbaric and emotional) o Style of thought o Corporate network of vested interests • The orient and the western self­conception o Contrast conception­ creating identity of self by comparison o Superiority/inferiority o Subject/object relationship­ subject is an agent and object is passive o Overgeneralization­ removing specifities  Colonialism 1. Not a thing but a practice 2. Always about the subjugation of one people to another 3. When one society gradually expand and incorporate (by force) other territories 4. Etymology of the term colonialism 5. Involves uprootedness of indigenous population • Common patterns: o Political and legal domination over others o Relations of economics and political dependence o Exploitation of colonies by imperial powers o Racial and cultural inequality • Definition: “colonialism occurs when one country or one culture exercise power over another,  whether through settlement or direct or indirect mechanisms of control.” • Example: Canada­ first nations and our relation with them very exploitive • Gendering colonialism: o Focus­ studied white women in the colonies o White women benefited from being members of “superior races” (i.e. memsahib) o White European women contributed necessary labour to imperial projects o Later on the study became much wider and began to study the ways in which colonialism  restructured gender dynamics of both colonizing and colonized societies o Example: Canadians going to Afghanistan to “free” their women  o Challenges of studying colonialism and gender:  Whose voice is heard?  Gender is a marginal category of analysis  How to talk about resistance to gendered colonialism without replicating the same  inequalities and hierarchies  Women’s Human Rights and its Discontent • Article 1: Definite discrimination against women as: “For the purposes of the present convention, the term “discrimination against women” shall mean any  distinction, exclusion, or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing  or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a  basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political,  economic, social, cultural, civil, or any other field”  Precarity • Judith Butler­ “precarity” designates that politically induced condition in which certain populations  suffer from failing social and economic networks of support and become differentially exposed to  injury, violence and death • Definition: condition under which certain bodies and lives are not deemed valuable, grievable, and  subjects of state protection  • Those who are marginalized­ systematically exclude them • Examples: aboriginal women, sex workers, transwomen, disabled  • Robert Pickton’s case in BC­ from 1991 to 2002­ sex trade workers disappearing from Vancouver;  one third of them native; took police almost 15 years to track this down. Why? Sarah Horowitz­ Sexual violence against women in a university context • Emotional and psychological impacts­ depression, anxiety, post­trauma • Rape myths: “culturally situated and socially learned ideologies that excuse sexual violence…and  advocate that (survivors) should accept responsibility for their sexual victimization”­ i.e. women lie  and say they were raped so they are not seen as sluts o Male university students rated the identical behaviour of rapists as being more excusable when  they were portrayed as dating the victim steadily than when they were portrayed as just friends  with the victim o Of a group of women raped by physical force,   22.7% said they only blamed themselves  27.3% said they blame themselves and the perpetrator  • Rape scripts: narrative
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