PSY100 Test 1 2008
L0101 M 11-1
1. Describe what a Social Psychologist studies and give an example of an experiment that might
be conducted in the area of Social psychology. (4 marks)
- social psychologists study groups and group behaviour such as attraction, obedience, conformity,
religion, aggression, prejudice, etc…
e.g., a researcher is looking at the effects of crowding on levels of aggression
2. What are the differences between the roles of Clinical Psychologists and Experimental
Psychologists? (4 marks)
- a clinical psychologist assesses, diagnoses, and treats mental disorders, doing
individual and/or group therapy with patients; they often work in hospitals and/or have a
- an experimental psychologist designs, carries out, and publishes scientific research;
they will usually be found teaching and doing research in Universities or doing research
for private corporations
3. What is a correlation? Please include an example of a positive correlation in your explanation.
- A correlation measures the strength and direction of associations between two
- A positive correlation occurs when the as the levels of one variable increase so do the
levels of the other variable(s).
e.g., height and weight are positively correlated [other examples are fine]
4. What two problems exist with trying to make causal inferences from correlational studies?
Describe and give an example of each problem. (4 marks)
1) directionality problem: you often don’t know if variable A is causing variable B to
change or if variable B is causing variable A to change, or if there is mutual interaction.
E.g., self-esteem and GPA are strongly positively correlated, but you don’t know if self- esteem causes you to get good marks or if getting good marks causes you to have high
2) third variable confound: a confound is a variable that is not controlled for what may be
affecting the relationship between two variables, e.g., IQ affects the relationship between
both self-esteem and GPA
[other examples are acceptable]
5. Briefly describe the Biological perspective of psychology. (2 marks)
- The biological perspective emphasizes that mental illness and dysfunction are caused at the root
by physical disturbances or abnormalities and that human development is most dependent on
genetic inherited traits and predispositions.
6. In which lobe of the brain would you find Broca’s area, and what is the significance of this
area? (2 marks)
- Frontal lobe
- Damage to Broca’s are affects speech and grammar production
7. What functions appear to be dominant in the right hemisphere of most people?
- non-linguistic functions including recognition of faces, places, sounds
- I would also accept spatial location, copying drawings, color recognition, or fear
8. Describe three limbic system functions and name the anatomical area associated with each
function. (3 marks)
- Septal area (or septum I would accept) are responsible for pleasure and pain relief
- The amygdala is associated with the learning and recognition of fear - The hippocampus is involved in memory consolidation and possible storage
9. What is a split-brain subject and under what circumstances would they not be able to name an
object held in their hand? (4 marks)
- a split-brain subject is someone who has had their corpus callosum severed (usually as a
treatment for epilepsy) and thus the two hemispheres of the brain cannot communicate directly.
Thus, if they had their eyes closed and held an object in their left hand they would be unable to
name the object since the information would only be sent to the contra-lateral right hemisphere
and not to the left hemisphere where language abilities are controlled. (assuming a normal right-
10. Explain how the Endocrine system works and how it communicates information in the body.
- the hypothalamus influences the pituitary gland to direct the body’s gland systems (thyroid,
adrenal, and gonads) to activate or deactivate
- the glands communicate by releasing hormones to travel in body’s bloodstream to bind
with receptors at diffuse target sites throughout the body.
L0201 M 2-4
1. Describe what a Cognitive Psychologist studies and give an example of an experiment that
might be conducted in the area of Cognitive psychology. (4 marks)
- cognitive psychologists study thinking and information processing including memory, higher
order thinking, eyewitness identification, musical processing, etc…
e.g., looking at the effects of time on episodic vs. semantic memories
2. What is Psychology? (3 marks)
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.
“anything an animal or human does, feels, or thinks.”
- Psychology is a science firmly based in empirical research.
- Psychology has broad application. 3. Explain what makes a study an experimental study? (2 marks)
- An experiment is a controlled study that uses random assignment to control for all variables,
except the independent variable being manipulated by the researcher. Random assignment allows
for causal inferences to be made between the independent and dependant variables.
4. Briefly describe the SQ3R reading method. (3 marks)
- Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review
- Read the table of contents to prime your brain with the main concepts of the readings, then
make a question out of the headings for each section
- Read the section, then answer the question out loud, (review the section if you can’t) and
then write your answer down