African Studies- Final Exam Study Sheet
Date: MON, DEC 09 7-9pm
Issue of large scale land
The buying or leasing in developing countries
By transnational companies, governments and individuals
Targets: Africa, Asia and Latin America
10s of millions of lands affected
Crops are grown there, local companies suffer
Violation of human rights- taking something that isn’t there’s
Green Grabbing- the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends.
Green grabbing builds on colonial resource alienation in the name of the
environment (e.g. for parks, forest reserves or to halt assumed destructive local
Private sector, state and community partnerships (e.g. CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe;
ADMADE in Zambia; LEAD in Namibia)
Challenges: private sector appropriation of land and resources; elite capture;
double taxing for poor people; cost of wildlife on rural livelihoods
7 drivers of Green grabbing:
1. Food (2007-2008 food crisis)”:
Food-insecure Gulf States (but also China, India and South Korea)
Corporate food regime
37% of all land grabs are for growing food, Loss of land: food insecurity?
Developed countries’ need to meet renewable energy targets (10% EU
target) (running away from oil dependency).
Jathropa and sugarcane for ethanol – Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia,
Angola, Madagascar and South Africa.
Increased environmental awareness
21% of total land grabs
Crowding out traditional food crops 3.Forestry and Mining
4. Climate change.
5. Conservation areas.
6. Large tourist complexes (enclave economy).
7. Retirement or residential migration
8. Purchase by migrants in their own countries.
The occupation and control of one nation by another
European nations colonized Africa from the late 19th century until the
middle to later 20th century.
Aspects of Naked Imperialism (Two Faces of Africa):
1. Scramble for the African Markets – ‘dumping’ of cheap products in Africa (e.g.
Negative impact of dumping on local producers (e.g. in Senegal there is1000%
increase in EU import poultry, resulting in 40% local farms going out of business;
same with New Zealand lamb in South Africa)
EU encouraging free trade agreements that will make ‘dumping’ easy.
2. Scramble for Natural Resources – mainly mineral and energy resources.
War on terror as entry point – oil and natural gas.
Military bases, military aid and pipelines.
Hot countries for these resources – see Lee’s article, pages 313-315.
Also known as ‘paradox of plenty’
Statement that countries and regions with an abundance of non-renewable
natural resources (e.g. mineral and fuels) tend to have less economic
growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer
Reasons for it:
Weak, ineffectual, unstable or corrupt institutions
Conflicts within societies – groups fighting for their share.
Taxation The translantic slave trade:
14 million Africans were taken over the Atlantic ocean in slavery
big impact on demographic
Africa was short of people, they needed certain things, a lot of land not enough
Pan Africanism- (19 Century)
bringing people together because of common culture
efforts to end slavery and the slave trade.
Africans were being oppressed and exploited and the colonization of Africa (The
Berlin Conference) had begun.
As a result of these events, black people worldwide began to realize that they
faced common problems (slavery, colonization and racism) and that it would be
beneficial to work together to solve these problems.
belief that people of African descent throughout the Diaspora (meaning spread
throughout the world) share a common history, culture, and experience and
should stick together
African diaspora- emerged in the 1950’s
label that is used to describe the dispersed people/removed/exiled from a
common territorial/geographic orgin
historical dimensions accosiasted: Pan Africanism
role of transformation and creating of new cultures, instituations and ideas outside
African Identities- Zulu & Yoruba
before the 19 century was the clan name of the kings, small kingdom
Zulu kingdom was still quite new. White conquest took decades. Many
chiefdoms remained in the indepen