African Studies exam .docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
African Studies
Steven Rockel

African Studies- Final Exam Study Sheet Date: MON, DEC 09 7-9pm Definitions: Land Grabbing:  Issue of large scale land  The buying or leasing in developing countries  By transnational companies, governments and individuals  Targets: Africa, Asia and Latin America  10s of millions of lands affected Consequences  Crops are grown there, local companies suffer  Violation of human rights- taking something that isn’t there’s Green Grabbing- the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends.  Green grabbing builds on colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment (e.g. for parks, forest reserves or to halt assumed destructive local practices).  Private sector, state and community partnerships (e.g. CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe; ADMADE in Zambia; LEAD in Namibia)  Challenges: private sector appropriation of land and resources; elite capture; double taxing for poor people; cost of wildlife on rural livelihoods 7 drivers of Green grabbing: 1. Food (2007-2008 food crisis)”:  Food-insecure Gulf States (but also China, India and South Korea)  Corporate food regime  37% of all land grabs are for growing food, Loss of land: food insecurity? 2. Biofuels:  Developed countries’ need to meet renewable energy targets (10% EU target) (running away from oil dependency).  Jathropa and sugarcane for ethanol – Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Madagascar and South Africa.  Increased environmental awareness  21% of total land grabs  Crowding out traditional food crops 3.Forestry and Mining 4. Climate change. 5. Conservation areas. 6. Large tourist complexes (enclave economy). 7. Retirement or residential migration 8. Purchase by migrants in their own countries. Colonization:  The occupation and control of one nation by another  European nations colonized Africa from the late 19th century until the middle to later 20th century. Aspects of Naked Imperialism (Two Faces of Africa): 1. Scramble for the African Markets – ‘dumping’ of cheap products in Africa (e.g. wheat, cotton)  Negative impact of dumping on local producers (e.g. in Senegal there is1000% increase in EU import poultry, resulting in 40% local farms going out of business; same with New Zealand lamb in South Africa)  EU encouraging free trade agreements that will make ‘dumping’ easy. 2. Scramble for Natural Resources – mainly mineral and energy resources.  War on terror as entry point – oil and natural gas.  Military bases, military aid and pipelines.  Hot countries for these resources – see Lee’s article, pages 313-315. Resource Curse:  Also known as ‘paradox of plenty’  Statement that countries and regions with an abundance of non-renewable natural resources (e.g. mineral and fuels) tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. Reasons for it:  Weak, ineffectual, unstable or corrupt institutions  Conflicts within societies – groups fighting for their share.  Taxation  The translantic slave trade:  14 million Africans were taken over the Atlantic ocean in slavery  big impact on demographic  Africa was short of people, they needed certain things, a lot of land not enough people.  Pan Africanism- (19 Century)  bringing people together because of common culture  efforts to end slavery and the slave trade.  Africans were being oppressed and exploited and the colonization of Africa (The Berlin Conference) had begun.  As a result of these events, black people worldwide began to realize that they faced common problems (slavery, colonization and racism) and that it would be beneficial to work together to solve these problems.  belief that people of African descent throughout the Diaspora (meaning spread throughout the world) share a common history, culture, and experience and should stick together  African diaspora- emerged in the 1950’s  label that is used to describe the dispersed people/removed/exiled from a common territorial/geographic orgin  historical dimensions accosiasted: Pan Africanism  role of transformation and creating of new cultures, instituations and ideas outside of Africa African Identities- Zulu & Yoruba  before the 19 century was the clan name of the kings, small kingdom  Zulu kingdom was still quite new. White conquest took decades. Many chiefdoms remained in the indepen
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