Understand generally how glacial/interglacial fluctuations work (also stadials and interstadials) Know what oxygen isotope ratios can tell us about climate. Should know changing trends throughout homo evolution (habilis to sapiens) Changes in skull (cranium & teeth) that reflect changes in dietary adaptations. You should be able to group species in chronological order (oldest to youngest); also, group by cranial capacity (smallest to largest). Hominid anatomy tutorial and specific lecture content (including walking. Culture/behaviour what do we know? (think archaeological evidence). Origin models be able to define, compare and contrast models. Know date ranges; specific cultural characteristics for each (i. e. what new thing appears in each subculture?) Common features of a state system you should be able to list and give examples of each (there are 7) Be familiar with case studies discussed in lecture. Should know how the 7 features of a state system were expressed in the 7 major early state systems discussed in class.