key terms

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Published on 4 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA02H3
Key terms/ Names:
Susan Bordo : 3 “axes of continuity” in Euro-American body ideals (contemporary issues)
The Dualist Axis: why dont we like bodies? Mind + body (separate from one
another (western belief)) mind more valued over body (historically and
culturally), body has limitation therefore enemy, body is controlled by mind
The Control Axis: fear of losing control, need to control the one thing they can-
body. We now have less control of our lives than 100 years ago. Fear of
controlling lives
The Gender/Power Axis: (women gaining more power thus shift in gender role)
women more obsessed with body and less satisfied. Money cant buy a good
feeling about oneself. (Women more controlled, related to other axis). Trying to
divert attention from power with body. Women trying to create a mans body
Body ideals
“crystallization” of culture: the way that various cultural logics and values comes
together, and sustain each other, in “real embodied form through body ideals
E.g.—fatness as beauty for Azawagh Arabs
E.g.—the tyranny of slenderness in North America
Primitive (ask Zohra to explain) vs. modern:
Primitive (or traditional) versus Modern: cultural characteristics not objectively
defined
Primitive: backward, uncivilized ethnocentric approach whereas modern is
happening now
The couple in a cage: couple displayed in a cage, people who came to look had the
urge to discover new people and studies.
Primitive people: do not share moral codes of body parts, fascination with
modern tech. had to be fed. Music has ethnic rhythm, focus on ceremonies and
rituals, they dont speak for themselves, animalistic ally treated
Modern versus contemporary: happening now versus different cultural morals.
Dualistic relationship to something else. anthropologists modern means some specific,
doesnt mean that happening today- modern means a lot of other things in anthropology,
contemporary means happening today, now
Progress: notion of time categorizing time and people. Time viewed differently
in cultures across the world. Time makes us better and helps develop
Race: Definition: the culturally constructed categorization of people into groups based on
physical characteristics
Race is a recent human invention about culture not biology (cultural construct) and
is embedded in institutions and everyday lives. It is a social categorization based on
physical attributes. (Skin color, religion, clothing, food, etc.)
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Meaningful social category with real social consequences. it shapes our behavior
with different people
Human invention of labels, grouping individual on common physical characteristics,
Race vs. ethnicity: (portraits of urban identity)
Use both terms interchangeable, insists on natural, physiological and
biological explanations of race.
Ethnicity is based on shared sense of identity and a relationship to other
groups
Racial traits as arbitrary and subjective: tongue rolling, fingerprints. Divisions of
biological populations by physical traits are arbitrary and subjective
Anthropology and race:
Craniometry: measuring the skull shape and size, cranial index where size
and shape predicts criminality, characteristics line up with racial groups.
Skull size was based on environment not genes.
Franz Boas: debunked the relationship between race and skull size (and
intelligence: Caucasians were said to be smarter because bigger brains)
Racism s (plural): modes of exclusion inferiorization, subordination, and exploitation that present
specific and different characteristics in different social and historical contexts. (Nira Yuval Davis
and Floya Anthias)
Race may not exist but racism does. Racial worldviews created inequality
Internalized racism: a girl like me
Black girls talking about how they like white, want to be white, dark skin is
not liked and viewed as unattractive and is not even wanted/ liked by
themselves
Test with children and doll preference
Institutionalized racism: just the way it is
In search of respect: masculine respect. Experiences are related to race, class and
gender. Bad choices reinforce class structures that oppress them
new racism- racial thinking where you dont have to say the word
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Document Summary

Susan bordo : 3 axes of continuity in euro-american body ideals (contemporary issues) We now have less control of our lives than 100 years ago. Fear of controlling lives: the gender/power axis: (women gaining more power thus shift in gender role) women more obsessed with body and less satisfied. Money can"t buy a good feeling about oneself. (women more controlled, related to other axis). Trying to divert attention from power with body. Crystallization of culture: the way that various cultural logics and values comes together, and sustain each other, in real " embodied form through body ideals: e. g. fatness as beauty for azawagh arabs, e. g. the tyranny of slenderness in north america. Primitive (or traditional) versus modern: cultural characteristics not objectively defined. Primitive: backward, uncivilized ethnocentric approach whereas modern is happening now. The couple in a cage: couple displayed in a cage, people who came to look had the urge to discover new people and studies.