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ANTA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Multiracial, Social Mobility, Wage Labour


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA02H3
Professor
Maggie Cummings
Study Guide
Final

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Final Exam ANTA02
Lec 7
Reading 183-184
Kids ages 6-9 describes thin silhouette as kind, happy and polite
Heavier silhouette as lying, lazy, and cheating
Teachers view heavier children as having more behavioural problems
Crystallization of culture in body ideals pg.189
Crystallization: the way that various cultural logics and values comes
together, and sustain each other, in real embodied form through body
ideals
E.g.fatness as beauty for Azawagh Arabs
E.g.the tyranny of slenderness in North America
Cultural logics for Azawagh Arabs: Islamic, economic (men work faraway), and
status
Cultural Values: Endogyny, Closeness/Stillness, Gender Complementarity
Why Slim Bodies?
Susan Bordo
General disdain for body over mind, Fear of loss of world around us, As
women gain more power in public
Axes of continuity:
Dualist Axis whats wrong with bodies? In Western tradition, mind and soul
are more valuable, mind/body as separate, mind is rational
Control Axis (why here and now?) body is how we exercise control, we
control our bodies bc we cannot control other parts of life since we rely on
tech.
Gender/Power Axis (why women?) Bc of shift in gender relations, as women
gain more control over their lives and power, a counter cultural logic that
you will only be powerful and beautiful if you are thin.
Lec 8
What do we talk about when we talk about progress?
10 000 years ago humans lived in groups of 30-100, gathering vegetables and
hunting game
sedentary: mode of livelihood characterized by permanent or semi
permanent settlements
progress: idea that human history is a story of a steady advance from a life
dependent on the whims of nature to a life of control and domination over
natural forces
2.1 How and why did foraging societies switch to sedentary agriculture?
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Cultural change: changes in meanings that people ascribe to experiences and
changes in their way of life
Bands: term used by anthropologists to refer to egalitarian units of social
organization, found mostly among foragers, that usually consist of less than
100 people
Groups were small and mobile; formal leaders not needed and little
occupational specialization
o If there was a specialist, likely to be a person believed to have special
spiritual powers that could cure illness or cause illness or death
Kinship is main organizing principle
Social differences among people largely based on age and gender
Egalitarian relations likely as no occupational specialization or difference in
wealth/possession exist
At some point in history, foragers began planting crops and domesticating
animals
These groups became sedentary, living permanent or semi permanent
settlements of 200 to 2000 people
Practiced slash and burn (or swidden) agriculture: mode of livelihood where
forests are cleared by burning trees and brush, and crops are planted among
the ashes of the clear ground
This land would be cultivated for 1-3 years; another plot of land would then
be burned and planted
Since larger, more sedentary groups required more formal leadership,
certain members assumed roles of chief or elder, with authority to make
decisions and resolve disputes
Simple occupational roles developed
Villages consisted of extended family groups and people organized
themselves into clans: a unilineal descent group whose members claim
descent from a common ancestor
Now that leadership roles developed, members ranked in importance
Later in history, perhaps due to a need to defend themselves against other
groups, settlements combined under common leaders to form states
consisting of many thousands of persons: form of society characterized by a
hierarchical ranking of people and centralized political control
Agricultural development intensified, and slash and burn was replaced by
plough or irrigation agriculture: cultivation where water is used to deliver
nutrients to growing plants
Leaders organized labour for purpose of constructing public works like roads
(Inca Hwy), fortifications (Great Wall of China), and religious structures
(pyramids in Mexico, cathedrals in medieval Europe)
Hereditary leaders emerged; settlements grew into cities, and competition
between groups over resources developed standing armies
As technology increased, people began to specialize in occupational tasks
(e.g., herder, baker, butcher, warrior, potter). This led to increased trade and
evolution of merchant class
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Some 300 yrs ago, some of these hierarchical states developed into large
scale, industrialized states which are now found all over the world
**Picture on pg 44
Evolutionary Explanations
One possible reason for why societies transformed is that human inventions
made it easier to do things
Lewis Morgan: Societies go through 3 stages- savagery, barbarism, and
civilization with advancement of technological invention
Leslie White: cultural development varies with efficiency of the tools
employed. Technology that is more efficient allows human societies to
transform more energy to fulfill their needs
Soon not everyone needs to produce, leading to specialization in other fields
Shortcomings of Theories
Women produce more than men, tribes do not die of hunger, worked less and
lived more peacefully
Transition to Agriculture
When groups searching for food bump into each other and population
density is high, then foragers cultivate their own food
Farmland may become scarce because of population or enviro changes so
new techniques must be developed instead of swidden agriculture such as
irrigation agriculture
Pop. Density: number of people in a given area
2.2 Explain Inequalities
Growth of British textile is one example of how rich and poor are produced.
Caused Indian colonization, destroyed textile manufacturing in India,
escalated opium imports in China, extended slavery in the US, drained Africa
of productive labour, and drove Natives out of their lands
2.3 How do Globalization, economic development and cultural diversity relate?
Economic Development assumptions: 1) solution to national and global
problems 2) continue to solve global ecological and social problems 3)
foreign assistance to undeveloped countries will make things better
World Bank loans to poor countries to help development but they cannot pay
the loans back. Renegotiate loans and lower gov spending to make up for it
Chpt 7.1
Globalzation: intensification of worldwide social relations that link distant
localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events far away
and vice versa
Economic systems: distribution of goods and services
Neoliberalism: keep gov out of the market system
Nation state: must be recognized by citizens as legitimate source of authority,
must establish and uphold its own citizenship rules, institutions that
integrate all of its members
What is the relationship between our conceptions of time and our ideas about what
it means to be primitive?
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