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ANTA02H3 Study Guide - Laura Nader, Cultural Anthropology, Franz Boas


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA02H3
Professor
Maggie Cummings

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ANTHROPOLOGY TEXT NOTES
CHAPTER 1
- INTRODUCTION
o The world behind everyday appearacnes
Socio cultural anthropology
An anthropological approach that retains the british
focus on social anthropology at the same time as it adds
the american focus on culture to produce something
slightly different from either one.
Look beyond the world of everyday experiences and
discover patterns and meanings that lie behind the worl
Chair political anatomy of educational settings
Its part of he system of relations that give meaning to a
classroom
A chair with a back to it is more school but a chair
without is more open to conversation and movement
o armchair anthropologist
Refers to an approach to the study of various societies that
dominated anthropology in the late 1800s. It involved the
collection, study, and analysis of the writings of missionaries,
explorers, and colonists who had sustained contact with non-
Western peoples. Armchair anthropologists used these
documents to make comparisons and generalizations about the
ways of life of various groups. (p. 9)
o culture
The system of meanings about the nature of experience that
are shared by a people and passed on from one generation to
another, including the meanings that people give to things,
events, activities, and people. (p. 6)
o ethnography
A written description and analysis of a particular group of
people, usually based upon anthropological fieldwork. (p. 11)
o fieldwork
Anthropologists engage in long-term interactions (usually a
year or more) with various groups of people. This often
involves living with people, observing and contributing to daily
chores and tasks (participant observation), and conducting
interviews. Most fieldwork in anthropology has historically
been qualitative in nature. (p. 10)
o multi-sited fieldwork
This term, coined by George Marcus in 1995, refers to the
process of connecting localized experiences of fieldwork with
broader, global processes. It necessitates understanding
various issues from multiple “sites” or perspectives. (p. 13)

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o participant observation
An element of fieldwork that can involve participating in daily
tasks, and observing daily interactions among a particular
group. (p. 10)
o representation
The way in which a group of people is depicted in writing or
through images. Anthropologists are increasingly conscious of
the fact that when they write about a group of people, they are
constructing particular representations that may have positive
or negative long-term effects for a group of people. (p. 14)
o salvage anthropology
An approach to anthropology that arose in the late 1800s when
anthropologists witnessed the extinction and/or assimilation
of indigenous groups throughout the world. In response, some
anthropologists, such as Franz Boas, suggested that
anthropologists rapidly document the oral stories, songs,
histories, and other traditions of indigenous groups before
they disappeared. (p. 12)
o sociocultural anthropology
An anthropological approach that retains the British focus on
social anthropology at the same time as it adds the American
focus on culture to produce something slightly different from
either one. (p. 3)
o ethnographic method
The immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of the
peoples they are trying to understand in order to comprehend
the meanings these people ascribe to their existence. (p. 10)
- 1.2 REPRESENTATION AND CULTURE
o essentialism
The act of creating generalizations or stereotypes about the
behavior or culture of a group of people. (p. 14)
o When essentialist representation is consumed buy a public that is to
often uncritical racism is perpetuated and domestic foreign policy are
affected for the worse.
o Chignon studied yamonami labeled them as fierce and warlike.
Turner argued that representations of the yanomami as fierce
has done them harm
o Mass media anthropologist have socialpolitical and economic
consequences
o Important for anthros to concider the long term impact of their work
in various communities
- 1.3 IS IT POSSIBLE TO SEE THE WORLD THROUGH THE EYES OF OTHERS
o Confronting witchcraft in mexico

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Awkward embarrassing moments help anthros understand
and question their own view on the world. Through his
experience that systems of belief are eminently reasonable
when viewsd from wthin that system
By participating in the lives of others and in their cultural
practices anthropologists can take themeslvs as subject of
investigation.
Fieldwork and anthropologists immerse themselves in cutures
and they are marginal. They are not fully native but they are
never themselves again
o The ethnocentric fallacy and the realativist fallacy
ethnocentric fallacy
The mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of
other cultures can be judged from the perspective of
one’s own culture. (p. 19)
ethnocentrism
The tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviours of
other cultures from the perspective of one’s own
culture. Page 19
Anthros find ethnocentric fallacy intellectually and
methodologically intolerable
Intellectual and social dead end inevitable
Not everyone can think they are right and the other is wrong
Because of these implications anthos reject this position.
cultural relativism
The attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviours of
other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are
found. (p. 19)
Also raises issues
Says no ebhaviour can be right or wrong because it is
different from our own.
Must understand a culture
relativistic fallacy
The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgments
about the beliefs and behaviours of members of other
cultures. (p. 20)
Seems morally intolerable, no beleifs or behaviors can
be condemmed.
Ethnocentric alternative
Intellectually and methodologically unsatisfactory
Relativistc alternative
Morally unsatisfactory
o Virginity testing in turkey and cannibalism among the wari’
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