ANTA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Franz Boas, James George Frazer, Edward Burnett Tylor

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Published on 11 Apr 2018
Lec#2 Jan.15th.18
Culture and Meaning
Relativist Fallacy: The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgements about the beliefs and
behaviours of members of other cultures.
Historical Particularism: rejects the cultural evolutionary model that had dominated
anthropology until Boas. It argues that each society is a collective representation of its unique
historical past.
Cultural Relativism: The effort to understand the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures in
terms of the culture in which they are found (by the observer).
Ethnocentrism: The tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures from the
pespetie of oes
Fieldwork and ethnography: Ethnography (what anthropologists write) is based on fieldwork.
The goal is to witness and record on a culture based on their own point of view [Culture from
the atie poit of ie Malioski; Geetz].
Armchair anthropology: This appoah doiated athopolog i the late s. It iolves
the collection, study and analysis of the writings of missionaries, explorers and colonists who
had sustained contact with non-Western peoples. Armchair anthropologists used these
documents to make comparisons and generalizations about the ways of life of various groups.
Participant Observation: The active participation of observers in the lives of subjects.
Edward Tylor: Armchair anthropologist
James Frazer: Armchair anthropologist
Bronislaw Malinowski: referred to as the first researcher to bring anthropology "off the
verandah" that is, experiencing the everyday life of his subjects along with them. He emphasised
the importance of detailed participant observation and argued that anthropologists must have
daily contact with their informants if they are to adequately record the "imponderabilia of
everyday life" that are so important to understanding a different culture.
Franz Boas: Historical Particularism, Relativist Fallacy, Cultural Relativism versus Ethnocentrism.
The switch to fieldwork meant first-hand knowledge; holistic knowledge; comparative, but not
hierarchical, approach to culture. Boas viewed culture as a lens for experience.
Contemporary consensus about culture: Culture is learned and shaped by power relations. No
culture is pristine/untouched. The penetration of local communities by global culture does not
doom local cultural traditions to extinction.
Culture: Specifically, shared patterns of learned behaviour. Shared among the members of the
cultue. Cultue is the sste of eaigs aout the atue of epeiee that is shaed  a
people ad passed fo oe geeatio to aothe.
Philosophes ad aious eploes as poto-athopologists
Victorian anthropology (Tylor and Frazer): Eolutioa, hieah of iilizatio
(Comparative, second-hand accounts; they would not go into the field themselves for their info)
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Lec#3 Jan.22th.18
Worldview (Construction of Reality)
Worldview; ritual, rites of passage: An encompassing picture of reality based on a set of shared
assumptions about how the world works. Multiple worldviews may coexist in a single culture, or
a single worldview may dominate.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf’s hpothesis: We ae hat e speak. Thee is a
systematic relationship between the categories of the language a person speaks and how that
person understands the world and behaves in it. In other words, different language patterns
yield different patterns of thought. Reality is not just reflected or described by language, but
shapes what reality is for us. Learning a language is about more than vocabulary; so is culture.
Adaic ie of laguage: The idea that language is just a system of labels that reference to
real-world objects and experiences. The Adamic Language is officially known as the language
ieted  Ada ad Ee i the Gade of Ede hih he used to ae all thigs, ad it
suggests the above idea.
Metaphors we lived by (Lakoff and Johnson): We use metaphors to use ideas from one domain
of experience to make sense of other kinds of experiences. Perhaps it is not the structures of
language but culturally significant metaphors that shape and reflect worldview and culture.
Domains of experience: An area of human experience (business, war, science, family life, etc.)
from which people borrow meaning to apply to other areas.
Time as objectified and spatialized: Different cultures have different worldviews and
interpretations of time. Fo eaple, ho does oe ultue easue tie? What kids of tie
do they have? What metaphors and phrases are used when referring to it?
Benjamin Franklin: Tried to identify a cultural change that was happening in his time period
(1748). Coined the term Tie is Moe. If tie is oe, it a e saed, spet udgeted, et.
Protestant work ethic, Max Weber: The idea that Tie is Moe ealed ad stegtheed
capitalism. Protestant work ethic emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result
of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith. If you work hard,
denying yourself pleasure, you will be successful and powerful. Being wealthy made you blessed
ad pat of Gods elet.
Ritual (secular vs. religious): A dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a
specific body of people in a way that makes them seem correct and proper. Rituals are
patterned, repetitive and symbolic. They are among symbolic actions (including myth, art, dance
and music as well) that dramatically depict the meanings shared by a specific body of people.
They are set off from everyday life and recognized as significant. Religious rituals attempt to
gain influence or sympathy of a particular cosmic being.
Rites of passage; Separation, transition, integration: Rituals that mark the transition from one
life stage to another. Separation is breaking free from one stage of life (i.e. Graduation, Hazing
at Fraternities), Transition is liminality/communitas where you are between two stages (i.e.
Walking to the altar, but not married yet), Integration is when you have finally been accepted as
a member of your new life stage (i.e. Throwing your cap at graduation, first day of college).
Liminality and communitas: Between stages limbo, as described above. Liminality is the
quality of ambiguity or disorientation that occurs in the middle stage of rituals, when
participants no longer hold their pre-ritual status but have not yet begun the transition to the
status they will hold when the ritual is complete.
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Lec#4 Jan.29th.18
Relatives and Social Relations
Ego: Reference point for describing kin, i a kiship diaga. Cat hae a kiship diaga
without a reference to explain and dictate the relationships.
Etic and Emic perspectives: Emic and Etic refer to two kinds of field research done and
viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject)
and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
Inuit and Iroquois kinship classification: Look up Inuit and Iroquois kinship diagrams. Inuit
diaga looks like a ulea fail elatioship, whereas with Iroquois diagrams a othes
siste is also alled othe ad he hilde ae alled othes ad sistes. Likeise, a fathes
brother is also called father and his children are called brothers and sisters.
Matrilateral and patrilateral kin: The belief that kin belong solely to the line of either the
mother or the father. See Patrilineal or Matrilineal descent for more information.
Bilateral and unilineal descent: Bilateral descent is the notion we are equally descended from
both mother and fathes side. Hoee, uilieal deset epesets oe side to e ou hole
lineage and descent, whether it be mother or father. With unilineal descent, you are still related
ith those o the othe paets side ho ou hae ot laied, ut the hae no familial or
descent claim on you.
Cross-cousins and parallel cousins: Cross-cousins are children of opposite-sex siblings of a
parent. Parallel cousins are children of same-sex siblings of a parent.
Endogamy and exogamy: Exogamy is a rule that requires a person to marry someone outside of
their own group, whereas endogamy is a rule that requires someone to marry within their own
group (i.e. Lineage, religious group, ethnic group).
Patrilineal or matrilineal descent: Patrilineal descent is traced through the male line, whereas
matrilineal descent is traced through the female side/line.
Consanguine and affinal kin: Consanguine kin are related though lood ties (actual siblings
and immediate family), whereas Affinal kin are related through marriage i.e. ou i-las.
Fictive kinship: Fitioal elatioships, kiship o ties that ae eated o foed though
special events or special/close personal relations. There are a variety of traditions that create
this (i.e. milk kin, people are sibligs if thee ee east-fed by the same person, godparents).
Brideprice/Bridewealth: The valuables a groom or is family is expected or obligated to present
to the ides fail.
Procreation as symbolic and paternity as cultural construct: Both procreation and paternity
ostuts a tell us a lot aout a ultues oldie. Cosider the agricultural metaphor,
hee e poide the seed ito the oes soil, implying that it is men who are the active
agents of procreation as they are providing the vital seed which the woman simply grows. This
implication has a massive effect on patrilineage cultural views and a reason behind why some
cultures believe that descent and lineage links through men. On the opposite end of the
spectrum, matrilineal Trobrianders have no sense of paternity.
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