•Susan Bordo: Did research work on Anorexia Nervosa in America in women.
She believes that it Anorexia is the crystallization in North America. She
believes that there are three axes of continuity that converge in anorexia. The
Dualist Axes which makes a woman believe that her body is wrong, confining
and limiting. Gender/ Power axis makes the women believe that the body is
too much and creates anorexia subconsciously and the Control Axis is that
women are developing, they are being controlled in one realm but not in
another. The more a women gains power the thinner she must become.
•Body ideals and crystallization of culture: way that cultural values and logics
come together and are sustain each other in “real” embodied forms through
body ideals. For example in Feeding Desire the cultural values of the
Azawagh Arabs such as closedness, immobility and other cultural value are
embodied in woman’s bodies through fatness. Another example is how
slenderness is a trend in North America.
•Primitive or traditional vs. modern: people who thought time was linear, saw
some societies as illiterate society, living fossils in which they called primitive
societies. People stuck in the past would be primitive. Idea which is displayed
in Todd Sanders article: the Dark Continent, where the European British
society was seen as modern and technological while the “African people” were
seen as primitive and traditional. Modern societies are seen to be more
Western and Primitive/ Traditional societies are seen to be Eastern societies.
Primitive: clothing, ritualistic, religious, not English speaking societies, ribal
communities, no sense of control
•Modern vs. contemporary: Modern times was before now is contemporary
•“Progress”: movement through time is seen as good, it seems to make things
better, things become more rational, technological.
•Linear time: social construct, time is linear in the sense of past, present and
future. The past is something behind us, in linear time we can move only in
one direction. Before time was religious, it was finite. There were three
historical times: ancient (pharaohs), medieval (dark ages), modern period.
Darwin brought in the idea of prehistory, illiterate times.
•Nostalgia: romanticizing the idea of primitivism, thinking positively about
•Todd Sanders: homogenization of the African people, an entire continent.
Reduction to difference to uniformity, unifying Africa as a whole even though
it an entire continent. Identity: us versus them. Western vs. Eastern,
Primitive societies vs. modern, technology vs. religious and ritualistic.
Globalization being a “threat” as it makes the us meet the them