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Final

Final Exam Terms with Definitions

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA02H3
Professor
Maggie Cummings

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Anthropology
Class 7
Susan Bordo: Did research work on Anorexia Nervosa in America in women.
She believes that it Anorexia is the crystallization in North America. She
believes that there are three axes of continuity that converge in anorexia. The
Dualist Axes which makes a woman believe that her body is wrong, confining
and limiting. Gender/ Power axis makes the women believe that the body is
too much and creates anorexia subconsciously and the Control Axis is that
women are developing, they are being controlled in one realm but not in
another. The more a women gains power the thinner she must become.
Body ideals and crystallization of culture: way that cultural values and logics
come together and are sustain each other in real embodied forms through
body ideals. For example in Feeding Desire the cultural values of the
Azawagh Arabs such as closedness, immobility and other cultural value are
embodied in womans bodies through fatness. Another example is how
slenderness is a trend in North America.
Primitive or traditional vs. modern: people who thought time was linear, saw
some societies as illiterate society, living fossils in which they called primitive
societies. People stuck in the past would be primitive. Idea which is displayed
in Todd Sanders article: the Dark Continent, where the European British
society was seen as modern and technological while the African people were
seen as primitive and traditional. Modern societies are seen to be more
Western and Primitive/ Traditional societies are seen to be Eastern societies.
Primitive: clothing, ritualistic, religious, not English speaking societies, ribal
communities, no sense of control
Modern vs. contemporary: Modern times was before now is contemporary
times.
Progress”: movement through time is seen as good, it seems to make things
better, things become more rational, technological.
Linear time: social construct, time is linear in the sense of past, present and
future. The past is something behind us, in linear time we can move only in
one direction. Before time was religious, it was finite. There were three
historical times: ancient (pharaohs), medieval (dark ages), modern period.
Darwin brought in the idea of prehistory, illiterate times.
Nostalgia: romanticizing the idea of primitivism, thinking positively about
primitivism.
Todd Sanders: homogenization of the African people, an entire continent.
Reduction to difference to uniformity, unifying Africa as a whole even though
it an entire continent. Identity: us versus them. Western vs. Eastern,
Primitive societies vs. modern, technology vs. religious and ritualistic.
Globalization being a threat as it makes the us meet the them
www.notesolution.com
Race: used to create an us vs. them, human invention, cultural construct,
race is about culture not biology, defined by someones physiognomy (physical
features), affects how we interact with each other, separates people and
brings people together, exists as a social category. Insists on natural or
biological explanations. Correlation of traits and physiological features are a
human invention.
Phenotype
Race vs. ethnicity: insists on natural or biological explanations but ethnicity
is based on a shared sense of identity.
Essential concepts of race vs DNA distribution: DNA differences occur more
within racial groups more than other groups.
Racial traits as arbitrary and subjective: knowing the range of one physical
trait does not allow you to predict another. Divisions of biological populations
by physical traits are arbitrary and subjective. Racial categories are
subjective, they change when you change places, arbitrary as they are not the
only thing that you could judge people by.
Great chain of being: religious model that every organism belonged to a
category in a hierarchy established by God, this was an antievolutionary
time, static model as it does not change. It was against God to disturb this
order, racial model came from. Racial stratification justified ownership of
other people and colonization, racial ideology justified the differences
between people.
Samule Cartwright, drapetomania, scientific racism: he classified
drapetomania to slaves who had the tendency to run away. This became a
medical disorder and the treatment was to beat them. Science and religion
were both employed to justify racism
Franz boas and craniometry: measuring skull shape and size, Caucasians in
america had a bigger brain size and therefore were smarter than the other
races, Franz Boas debunked the relationship between race and skull size,
culture determines behaviour not brain size. Nutrition had caused the
difference in skull shape and skull size, by measuring 1st generation
immigrants and 2nd generation immigrants.
Race and racisms: racial world view is what created inequality. Policies based
on socially constructed groups do a lot to increase inequality.
New racism: soft, cultural racisms instead of race use culture but in a racist
way. Predicting behaviour based on culture. Use it with a negative
connotation.
Internalized racism: a girl like me, when you believe the racist stereotypes,
and behaviour associated with racism and apply it to others or yourself.
Racism as plural: plural as it overlaps with many other factors, modes of
exclusion, inferiorization, suboridination and exploitation. Subjective were
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Anthropology Class 7 Susan Bordo: Did research work on Anorexia Nervosa in America in women. She believes that it Anorexia is the crystallization in North America. She believes that there are three axes of continuity that converge in anorexia. The Dualist Axes which makes a woman believe that her body is wrong, confining and limiting. Gender Power axis makes the women believe that the body is too much and creates anorexia subconsciously and the Control Axis is that women are developing, they are being controlled in one realm but not in another. The more a women gains power the thinner she must become. Body ideals and crystallization of culture: way that cultural values and logics come together and are sustain each other in real embodied forms through body ideals. For example in Feeding Desire the cultural values of the Azawagh Arabs such as closedness, immobility and other cultural value are embodied in womans bodies through fatness. Another example is how slenderness is a trend in North America. Primitive or traditional vs. modern: people who thought time was linear, saw some societies as illiterate society, living fossils in which they called primitive societies. People stuck in the past would be primitive. Idea which is displayed in Todd Sanders article: the Dark Continent, where the European British society was seen as modern and technological while the African people were seen as primitive and traditional. Modern societies are seen to be more Western and Primitive Traditional societies are seen to be Eastern societies. Primitive: clothing, ritualistic, religious, not English speaking societies, ribal communities, no sense of control Modern vs. contemporary: Modern times was before now is contemporary times. Progress: movement through time is seen as good, it seems to make things better, things become more rational, technological. Linear time: social construct, time is linear in the sense of past, present and future. The past is something behind us, in linear time we can move only in one direction. Before time was religious, it was finite. There were three historical times: ancient (pharaohs), medieval (dark ages), modern period. Darwin brought in the idea of prehistory, illiterate times. Nostalgia: romanticizing the idea of primitivism, thinking positively about primitivism. Todd Sanders: homogenization of the African people, an entire continent. Reduction to difference to uniformity, unifying Africa as a whole even though it an entire continent. Identity: us versus them. Western vs. Eastern, Primitive societies vs. modern, technology vs. religious and ritualistic. Globalization being a threat as it makes the us meet the them www.notesolution.com
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