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ANTB14H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Zygomatic Bone, Gregor Mendel, Gradualism


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTB14H3
Professor
Michael Schillaci
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 1: Intro to Evolutionary Anthropology
5 Research Disciplines
Primatologynon human primates
o Descriptions of primate anatomy thru field studies of wild animals
o Primate psychology
Paleoanthropologynon human and human primates
o Variations in human cultural activities, behaviour (moving across landscape)
Human Variation
o Spatial and temporal variations in human features (skin pigmentation, skeletal, dental)
Medical Anthropology
o Effects of social, environmental and biological factors on human health and illness (poor
nutrition, breastfeeding)
Forensic Anthropology
o Focus on skeletal remains of humans (determine age, sex, trauma, etc.)
How Anthropologists Conduct Research
Descriptive: collecting data of the subjects (non-causal relationshipstail length, color)
Causal: one thing that causes change to another (tail length due to locomotion?)
Applied research: determining the mean by which a need can be met
Evolutionary Concepts
Carl Linnaeus
o Taxonomy: classify plants & animals in groups of similarities/differences
o Binomial nomenclature: way of naming with two names
Georges-Louis Leclerc
o Biogeography: geographical distribution of organisms; species change and evolve when
they move from birthplace
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
o Soft inheritance: organisms lose useless traits and develop and pass on useful traits to
their offspring
Georges Cuvier
o Catastrophism: species can become extinct (against fixity)
James Hutton & Lyell
o Uniformitarianism: processes in earth in the past is still the same in present
Darwin’s Theory
1-the population’s ability to expand is infinite but the environment’s ability to sustain that
population is finite (a struggle for existence)

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2-there are variations in individuals; this variation affects the individual’s ability to survive and
reproduce (ex: short/tall stature)
3-this variation is transmitted from parents to offspring
Gregor Mendel
Father of genetics; pea plants; mechanisms of heredity
Chapter 2: Microevolution and Evolutionary Anthropology
Inheritance and Biological Evolution
Chromosomes: molecules containing genes; inside nucleus
Mitosis: division of non-sex cells; results in diploid daughter cells
Meiosis: division of sex cells to create ½ DNA as parent cell; results in haploid daughter cells
Gamete: sex cell
Recombination: where 2 chromosomes exchange genetic material during gamete formation
DNA
What chromosomes are made up of
Double-helix shape
Composed of 4 nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine; G always combines with
C and A always combines with T
Nucleotide: made of 1 sugar, 1 phosphate, 1 base
Protein Formation
RNA: single-stranded nucleic acid
Transcription: copying of genetic information from DNA into RNA
Translation: RNA translated into protein
Mutation
Change in an organism’s DNA; error or change in a nucleotide sequence
Result of 4 things: copying errors during cell division, exposure to radiation, mutagens or viruses
Random process
Ultimate source of new genetic materials in populations
Somatic cell mutation: changes to nucleotide sequence of genetic material in the body except
those in sperm/egg; cannot pass from 1 generation to next
Germ cell mutation: changes to nucleotide sequence of genetic material in sex cells; involve
heritable materials; can be passed onto descendants

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Genetic Drift
Random changes in gene pool over time
Outcomes
o 1-reduces within-population genetic variation
o 2-more likely to affect small populations
o 3-increases between-population genetic variation
2 forms of genetic drift associated with small populations
o Founder effect: when a new sub-population is comprised of only a subset of that
populationgenetic variation decreases and decreases
o Bottleneck: starts with a large population and an event decreases that population
drastically then later the population increases again but the gene-variation is still much
reduced
Gene Flow
Movement of genes between populations
Non-random process
Outcomes
o 1-initially, increases within-population genetic variation
o 2-eventually, decreases between-population genetic variation
Natural Selection
Selects for specific physical features; does not create variation
Non-random process
Acts only on existing variationcan increase or decrease variations within & b/w populations
Fitness
Selection for heritable traits
Two properties
o 1-involves success of biological entity in producing offspring
o 2-represents average contribution of allele or genotype to succeeding generations
Individuals with the same genotype have different reproductive success if their environments
have different selective pressures
Three Modes of Natural Selection
Directional
o favouring either higher or lower values of character; increases variation
o distribution is same; average is shifted
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