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ANTB19H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Manifest Destiny, Ethnic Nationalism, Social Evolution

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Donna Young
Study Guide

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As the 19th century ended, administrative and bureaucratic interventions
disrupted the lives of people across the world. People were being reconstituted as
subjects while nation states were emerging and empires were breaking up. Colonialism
came to play a role in disruption of the notions of time and space. These disruptions
were seen in various forms through different ideologies and time across the world. First
was through racist ideologies, which led to terror and discrimination. This was
prominent during the birth of the ideology of manifest destiny. Second was through the
ethno-nationalist exclusions orchestrated by emerging states and empires. A perfect
example of this was the policy by the Anglo-Egyptian government of Sudan to ‘divide
and rule’ the Sudan’s ethnic and tribal groups, including The Nuer tribe. Lastly,
colonialism disrupted time and space through the modern warfare and ideology of
ethnic cleansing. Sadly, this is still prominent during the modern times as it can be seen
through the notion of Zionism in Palestine.
Colonialism disrupts the notions of time and space. This could be seen through
racist ideologies that led to terror and discrimination. One of the racist ideologies was
manifest destiny. Manifest destiny was the notion of God’s will that Europeans settle
the west because of the idea that Europeans were superior to primitive races. This
notion was linked to the ideologies of social evolution and progress, which were still
very strong at the time. This was the reason why the racist notion that inferior races
meant to die out or be ruled as subjects was strongly implemented. A perfect example
of the disruption of time and space that colonialism brought to people was seen in Ishi,
the last Yahi remaining. Ishi’s tribe was the Yahi. Their way of living involved hunting
buffalo. However, this was slowly replaced by deer and cattle. As the Europeans started
colonizing North America, the Yahi was perceived as trespassing in private properties of
the settlers while hunting. Hunting was the only way of life the Yahi knew. Indians,
including Yahi, were either killed off or pushed away from their land and to the west.
Ishi was one of the few who escaped but the only one who stayed behind and hid from
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