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Key Concepts for Midterm

Course Code
Donna Young
Study Guide

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1.Culture: knowledge that is learned, shared, n used by ppl to interpret
experience n generate behaviour
2.ethnography: process of discovering n describing a particular culture
3.Edward Tylor: (1832- 1917):
oCulture that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief,
art, morals, custom, n any other capabilities n habits acquired by
man as a member of sociarty (1871)
4.Ethnocentrism: belief n feeling that one’s own culture is best
5.Pre-modern era: World thought of metaphysical hierarchy
-Reliance on tradition as a source of authority
oEx: Christianity
-View of humanity as being center of universe
oEx: sun arnd the world
-This is the concept of gr8 chain of being”
- Impo: idea that ur born into unchanging set of relationships
-Concept of class mobility wudnt make sense
-These relationships r organic n static
6.“great chain of being”: way of thinking abt ppl in a way that
everything established by God or nature belonged somewhere
- provided a model
-used ideal or race 2 justify slavery
7.modern era: Modern era (more was in 16th century)

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a.Copernicus (1473- 1543)
b. Galileo (1564- 1642)
c.Descartes (1596- 1650)
-Major ideological changes
oShifting power relations
-Ex: Roman Catholic Church decreased in authority (by a lot)
-Copernicus: Earth revolves arnd the sun
-Galileo: jailed by Catholic church, church apologized 1992
-Descartes: I think, therefore I am
oIf u can wonder whether or not u exist
oConcept marks a radical turn to the self
-If we relive on own perceptions of the world rather than sum authority
like church, wut emerges is a concept of self-contaminated isolated
person who can b independent of the world but can observe the world n
deduce how it works
oNotion that we no ourselves thru cognitive n reflexive activity
oWorld constructed as composed of objects that can b known
Ex: world is sum kind of break machine [fundamental
-All of this lead to 18th century enlightenment in Western philosophy
-This period was characterized by faiths over what we no n how we no it

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-2 main orientations emerged here
o1. Rationalism/ idealism
o2. Empiricism/ materialism
-1. focus on process of learning
- central question was affect of mind on reality
- interest in humans as agents
-2. refers to idea of collecting knowledge thry experience
oEx: statement thought to b TRUE only if can be verified thru
- considers with the rise of scientific evolution
- idea that nature has objective reality apart from us n we cum to
know it thru empirical analysis
- knowledge starts getting divided up into categories
oBeginnings of specialization: economics, philosophy
8.Post-modern era: Agents in flux/ action
-Began to see ppl rejecting dualistic models of the world
-rejecting modern definitions of self
-rejection of idea that we can have universal theories that explain
oex: mind vs brain
omodern vs traditional
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