•Coming together of cultures
•Outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies)
•Consistent circulation of people and/or things
•Increase flow of communication of technology.
•Increasing “interconnectedness” of the world
•Ideologies of Freedom/Human rights
“Three Dimensions of Globalization” – Erikson
•Increased trade and transnational economic activity.
•Faster and denser communications networks.
•Tensions between (and within) cultural groups have
“What Globalization is not” – Erikson
•Globalization is really recent, and began only in the
oNot the case. World systems have existed earlier in a
sense that people all over the world have
participated, often involuntary, in political and
economic systems of a huge, often intercontinental
oEx: Romans, Babylonians, etc.
•Globalization is just a new word for economic
imperialism or cultural Westernization.
oAlthough it is true that rich countries are dominant,
the situation is not static.
oDirection of flows is not unilateral.
oGlobalization =/= Westernization.
•Globalization means homonogenization.
oMisleading; participation in global/transnational
processes often entails a vitalization of local cultural
expressions which depend on an overseas market for
•Globalization is opposed to human rights
oGlobal spread of human rights is one of the most
spectacularly successful forms of globalization
experienced in the world.
oWorkers rights? but it is only thanks to the
globalization of political ideas that local
communities and organizations can argue effectively
against them and canvas for support from
transnational NGOs and governments overseas.
•Threat to local identities
oLocal identities are usually strengthened because
people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly
only when it appears to be threatened.
oOn the other hand, it is evidently true that local
power is often weakened as a result of globalization.
“What is new?” – Erikson
•End of the Cold War (Communism vs Capitalism)
oFree markets (USA) vs closed markets (USSR)
oLed to global alliances
otwo bloc system to a one bloc system
oCapitalism over socialism/communism.
oFree trade evangelized.
•Internet/other forms of technology
o“Global Village” – Marshall McLuhan
oTerm that designates the new mass media situation.
oCreation of shared frames of reference and mutual
knowledge between people from across the globe.
o* Too simple of a term, argues other
oTime-space distantiation – Anthony Giddens
oGlobalization – stretching of social life across time
oRemote encounters win over face-to-face
oTimes-spaces compression – David Harvey
o“The shoe”, how it is made and exported.
oShrinking of space and the compression of time.
Other Dimensions of Globalization – Erikson
oDistance is irrelevant, relative or at the very least
oAll means through which social life becomes
abstracted from its local, spatially fixed context.
oSpeed of transport and communication has
increased. Distance no longer means separation.
oComparability and shared standards (ex: English)
oNetworks connecting people across continents are
becoming denser, faster and wider.
oEntire world is on the move, or so it seems.
oCultural crossroads – friction AND mutual influence
oWeakening, and sometimes obliteration of
oCountervailing forces opposing the other dimensions
and positing alternatives.
Objective globalization – incorporated into a global, or a
wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily
being aware of it.
Subjective globalization – acknowledgement of such
processes taking place.
Characteristics of Globalization – Inda and Rosaldo
•The development of worldwide modes of transport
•An intensification of the links, modes of interaction,
and flows that interconnect the world.
•A stretching of social, cultural, political and economic
practices across frontiers so as to make possible action
at a distance.
•A heightened entanglement of the global and local.
•Not everyone has the same capacity for mobility.
•People and places whose experience are marginal to
or excluded from these movements and links
•People as “invisible” when speaking about
•Assuming that the world is becoming a smaller place
does not mean that we are becoming more alike, that
everyone is accounted for equally, or the people
experience these changes in the same way.
•Little to no access to transport and means for
communication (price is too high)
•‘global village’ underplays the importance of a
concurrent movement toward ‘ ironies and
resistances’, sometimes camouflaged as passivity and
a bottomless appetite in the Asian world for things
•Imagination as a social practice.
•However ‘one man’s imagined community is another
man’s political prison’ he also says. By posing global
capitalisms and its homogenizing tendencies as real,
we something’s forget the reality of hegemonic
strategies that are also in play.
•the awkward, unequal, unstable and creative qualities
of interconnection across difference.
•Heterogeneous and unequal ecountars can lead to new
arrangement of culture and power.
•The promise of globalization and its image as a well-
oiled machine – motion without restraint
owas assumed to happen by getting rid of state
policies and barriers. Flows of good, ideas, money,
and people would be pervasive and unimpeded.
•Friction is required to keep global power in
oRoads create pathways that make motion easier and
more efficient, but in doing so they limit where we
oAlso serves as confinement.
•Friction inflects historical trajectories, enabling,
excluding and particularizing.
Roles(s) of globalization (ECONOMY)
•IMF/WB influences the local economies of
•SAPs encourages privatization and free trade
oPrivatization – Public assets are taken over by
private companies in order to make a profit. The
price goes up for the consumers (citizens).
oFree Trade – Great idea but not everyone starts on
the same common ground. Therefore, informal
economy becomes dominant.
Importance of Disjuncture and Friction
•Raise concern with the less spoken about; chaotic,
divisive, violent aspects of global privatization and
•Raising awareness of the contextual and culturally
specific (sometimes invisible) aspects of this thing
TOURISM – Dominican Republic (Gregory)
•Tourism in the DR is a big business and what drives
the economy since the 90’s
•The beach becomes a symbolic space where
globalization can be visualized through the
interactions between foreigners and residents –
creating a spatial economy of difference.
oSmall businesses and petty trade on the beaches.
oOutside these beach zones, even more informal
economy (services and goods)
•Gregory focuses on the production and policing of
division of labor and the inequalities that this
expresses and secures.
•The politics of identity are fused with the everyday
politics of making a living – but how?
•He speaks of the field of antagonism and conflict that
is at the centre of the lives of his informants.
oWork more, get less.
•The increase of tourism in Boca Chica drew many
migrants from the outlying rural areas and created
‘floating populations’ – most of who helped create a
huge informal economy.
•Citizenship and the politics of exclusion
THE INFORMAL ECONOMY – Dominican Republic
•Label that exists outside the formal wage-labor
relations and outside state regulation
•While the world ‘informal’ suggests that it is outside
the ‘formal economy’, it needs to be looked at as an
intrinsic part of the overall structure of change.
oHustlers, gangsters, delinquents, ‘black markets’ –
are these considered ‘normal’?
•Practitioners of the informal economy into routine
conflict with the state authorities – disciplining of
labor and policing of boundaries (licit versus illicit)
•Almost illegal because they do not take part in the
wage labor market governed by the state.
oSex trade, Street vendors, hair braiders, etc.
•State Only overlooks the FORMAL economy.
oMen = formal, women = informal (general)
oMore women are starting to work in general in order
to support their families.
•A political entity whose existence is based around a
defined territory, within which the institutions of the
state have power to implement policies through
•Under international law, these boundaries are
constructed as fixed, and states have the right to
protect and police their borders, controlling mobility
of people, capital and resources across them.
•came together in a specific moment in time due to the
specific changes in terms of economics and politics.
•Brought different people together.
•Some have argued that due to globalization, the
nation-state is becoming less important; facilitating
the flows of people, ideas and capital while also
making these boundaries porous and insignificant.
•Linked to the creation of a nation-state, which is in a
sense, a modern creation
•A certain idea of home, race, culture
•Belonging to a common identity, which then
•People share an identity as citizens of a nation based
on common culture and history.
•These people contribute to the rituals and discourses
that form the state – building and protecting the state.
•Ex: voting, celebrating “national” events,
•Each individual can only be a citizen of one nation-
Nation-state being seen as a failure imagined!
•Imagined because the members of even the smallest
nation will never know most of their fellow-members,
meet them, or even hear them, yet in the minds of each
lives the image of their communion.
•Imagined because regardless of the actual inequality
and exploitation the may prevail, the nation is always
conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship.
Objective globalization incorporated into a global, or a wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily being aware of it. Subjective globalization acknowledgement of such processes taking place. Working definition: coming together of cultures, outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies, consistent circulation of people and/or things. Three dimensions of globalization erikson: tensions between (and within) cultural groups have. What globalization is not erikson: globalization is really recent, and began only in the. What is new? erikson: end of the cold war (communism vs capitalism) 1989-1991: free markets (usa) vs closed markets (ussr, led to global alliances, two bloc system to a one bloc system, capitalism over socialism/communism, free trade evangelized, imf/wb/nafta/wto (neo-liberal) Standardization: comparability and shared standards (ex: english) www. notesolution. com, was assumed to happen by getting rid of state. Tourism dominican republic (gregory) policies and barriers. Friction inflects historical trajectories, enabling, excluding and particularizing. Imf/wb influences the local economies of developing countries.