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Final

Final Exam 2009 study notes ANTB20

14 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTB20H3
Professor
Girish Daswani

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Working definition
Coming together of cultures
Outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies)
Consistent circulation of people and/or things
Increase flow of communication of technology.
Increasing “interconnectedness” of the world
Hybridity/mixing
Ideologies of Freedom/Human rights
Three Dimensions of Globalization” Erikson
Increased trade and transnational economic activity.
Faster and denser communications networks.
Tensions between (and within) cultural groups have
been intensified.
“What Globalization is not” Erikson
Globalization is really recent, and began only in the
1980s.
oNot the case. World systems have existed earlier in a
sense that people all over the world have
participated, often involuntary, in political and
economic systems of a huge, often intercontinental
scale.
oEx: Romans, Babylonians, etc.
Globalization is just a new word for economic
imperialism or cultural Westernization.
oAlthough it is true that rich countries are dominant,
the situation is not static.
oDirection of flows is not unilateral.
oGlobalization =/= Westernization.
Globalization means homonogenization.
oMisleading; participation in global/transnational
processes often entails a vitalization of local cultural
expressions which depend on an overseas market for
their survival.
Globalization is opposed to human rights
oGlobal spread of human rights is one of the most
spectacularly successful forms of globalization
experienced in the world.
oWorkers rights? but it is only thanks to the
globalization of political ideas that local
communities and organizations can argue effectively
against them and canvas for support from
transnational NGOs and governments overseas.
Threat to local identities
oLocal identities are usually strengthened because
people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly
only when it appears to be threatened.
oOn the other hand, it is evidently true that local
power is often weakened as a result of globalization.
“What is new?” Erikson
End of the Cold War (Communism vs Capitalism)
1989-1991
oFree markets (USA) vs closed markets (USSR)
oLed to global alliances
otwo bloc system to a one bloc system
oCapitalism over socialism/communism.
oFree trade evangelized.
oIMF/WB/NAFTA/WTO (neo-liberal)
Internet/other forms of technology
o“Global Village” Marshall McLuhan
oTerm that designates the new mass media situation.
oCreation of shared frames of reference and mutual
knowledge between people from across the globe.
o* Too simple of a term, argues other
anthropologists.
o//
oTime-space distantiation Anthony Giddens
oGlobalization stretching of social life across time
and space
oRemote encounters win over face-to-face
interaction.
o//
oTimes-spaces compression David Harvey
o“The shoe”, how it is made and exported.
oShrinking of space and the compression of time.
Other Dimensions of Globalization Erikson
Disembedding (de-location)
oDistance is irrelevant, relative or at the very least
less important
oAll means through which social life becomes
abstracted from its local, spatially fixed context.
Acceleration
oSpeed of transport and communication has
increased. Distance no longer means separation.
Standardization
oComparability and shared standards (ex: English)
Interconnectedness
oNetworks connecting people across continents are
becoming denser, faster and wider.
Movement
oEntire world is on the move, or so it seems.
Mixing
oCultural crossroads friction AND mutual influence
Vulnerability
oWeakening, and sometimes obliteration of
boundaries
Re-embedding
oCountervailing forces opposing the other dimensions
and positing alternatives.
Objective globalization incorporated into a global, or a
wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily
being aware of it.
Subjective globalization acknowledgement of such
processes taking place.
Characteristics of Globalization Inda and Rosaldo
The development of worldwide modes of transport
and communication.
An intensification of the links, modes of interaction,
and flows that interconnect the world.
A stretching of social, cultural, political and economic
practices across frontiers so as to make possible action
at a distance.
A heightened entanglement of the global and local.
www.notesolution.com
Awkwardness
Not everyone has the same capacity for mobility.
People and places whose experience are marginal to
or excluded from these movements and links
People as “invisible” when speaking about
globalization.
Assuming that the world is becoming a smaller place
does not mean that we are becoming more alike, that
everyone is accounted for equally, or the people
experience these changes in the same way.
Little to no access to transport and means for
communication (price is too high)
Disjuncture (Appadurai)
‘global village’ underplays the importance of a
concurrent movement toward ironies and
resistances’, sometimes camouflaged as passivity and
a bottomless appetite in the Asian world for things
western.
Imagination as a social practice.
However ‘one man’s imagined community is another
man’s political prison’ he also says. By posing global
capitalisms and its homogenizing tendencies as real,
we something’s forget the reality of hegemonic
strategies that are also in play.
Friction (Tsing)
the awkward, unequal, unstable and creative qualities
of interconnection across difference.
Heterogeneous and unequal ecountars can lead to new
arrangement of culture and power.
The promise of globalization and its image as a well-
oiled machine motion without restraint
owas assumed to happen by getting rid of state
policies and barriers. Flows of good, ideas, money,
and people would be pervasive and unimpeded.
Friction is required to keep global power in
motion.
oRoads create pathways that make motion easier and
more efficient, but in doing so they limit where we
go.
oAlso serves as confinement.
Friction inflects historical trajectories, enabling,
excluding and particularizing.
Roles(s) of globalization (ECONOMY)
IMF/WB influences the local economies of
developing countries.
SAPs encourages privatization and free trade
oPrivatization Public assets are taken over by
private companies in order to make a profit. The
price goes up for the consumers (citizens).
oFree Trade Great idea but not everyone starts on
the same common ground. Therefore, informal
economy becomes dominant.
Importance of Disjuncture and Friction
Raise concern with the less spoken about; chaotic,
divisive, violent aspects of global privatization and
capitalism.
Raising awareness of the contextual and culturally
specific (sometimes invisible) aspects of this thing
called globalization.
TOURISM Dominican Republic (Gregory)
Tourism in the DR is a big business and what drives
the economy since the 90’s
The beach becomes a symbolic space where
globalization can be visualized through the
interactions between foreigners and residents
creating a spatial economy of difference.
oSmall businesses and petty trade on the beaches.
oOutside these beach zones, even more informal
economy (services and goods)
Gregory focuses on the production and policing of
division of labor and the inequalities that this
expresses and secures.
The politics of identity are fused with the everyday
politics of making a living but how?
He speaks of the field of antagonism and conflict that
is at the centre of the lives of his informants.
oWork more, get less.
The increase of tourism in Boca Chica drew many
migrants from the outlying rural areas and created
‘floating populations’ most of who helped create a
huge informal economy.
Citizenship and the politics of exclusion
THE INFORMAL ECONOMY Dominican Republic
(Gregory)
Label that exists outside the formal wage-labor
relations and outside state regulation
While the world ‘informal’ suggests that it is outside
the ‘formal economy’, it needs to be looked at as an
intrinsic part of the overall structure of change.
oHustlers, gangsters, delinquents, ‘black markets’
are these considered ‘normal’?
www.notesolution.com
Practitioners of the informal economy into routine
conflict with the state authorities disciplining of
labor and policing of boundaries (licit versus illicit)
Almost illegal because they do not take part in the
wage labor market governed by the state.
oSex trade, Street vendors, hair braiders, etc.
State Only overlooks the FORMAL economy.
Gender
oMen = formal, women = informal (general)
oMore women are starting to work in general in order
to support their families.
Nation-state
A political entity whose existence is based around a
defined territory, within which the institutions of the
state have power to implement policies through
legislation.
Under international law, these boundaries are
constructed as fixed, and states have the right to
protect and police their borders, controlling mobility
of people, capital and resources across them.
“historical”
came together in a specific moment in time due to the
specific changes in terms of economics and politics.
Brought different people together.
//
Some have argued that due to globalization, the
nation-state is becoming less important; facilitating
the flows of people, ideas and capital while also
making these boundaries porous and insignificant.
Nationalism
Linked to the creation of a nation-state, which is in a
sense, a modern creation
A certain idea of home, race, culture
Belonging to a common identity, which then
becomes essentialized.
Assumptions
People share an identity as citizens of a nation based
on common culture and history.
These people contribute to the rituals and discourses
that form the state building and protecting the state.
Ex: voting, celebrating “national” events,
Each individual can only be a citizen of one nation-
state.
Nation-state being seen as a failure imagined!
Imagined because the members of even the smallest
nation will never know most of their fellow-members,
meet them, or even hear them, yet in the minds of each
lives the image of their communion.
Imagined because regardless of the actual inequality
and exploitation the may prevail, the nation is always
conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Working definition o Local identities are usually strengthened because Interconnectedness Coming together of cultures people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly o Networks connecting people across continents are Outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies) only when it appears to be threatened. becoming denser, faster and wider. o On the other hand, it is evidently true that local Movement Consistent circulation of people andor things Increase flow of communication of technology. power is often weakened as a result of globalization. o Entire world is on the move, or so it seems. Increasing interconnectedness of the world Mixing What is new? Erikson o Cultural crossroads friction AND mutual influence Hybriditymixing End of the Cold War (Communism vs Capitalism) Vulnerability Ideologies of FreedomHuman rights 1989-1991 o Weakening, and sometimes obliteration of Three Dimensions of Globalization Erikson o Free markets (USA) vs closed markets (USSR) boundaries Increased trade and transnational economic activity. o Led to global alliances Re-embedding o two bloc system to a one bloc system o Countervailing forces opposing the other dimensions Faster and denser communications networks. and positing alternatives. Tensions between (and within) cultural groups have o Capitalism over socialismcommunism. been intensified. o Free trade evangelized. o IMFWBNAFTAWTO (neo-liberal) Objective globalization incorporated into a global, or a Internetother forms of technology wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily What Globalization is not Erikson being aware of it. Globalization is really recent, and began only in the o Global Village Marshall McLuhan 1980s. o Term that designates the new mass media situation. Subjective globalization acknowledgement of such o Not the case. World systems have existed earlier in a o Creation of shared frames of reference and mutual sense that people all over the world have knowledge between people from across the globe. processes taking place. o * Too simple of a term, argues other participated, often involuntary, in political and anthropologists. Characteristics of Globalization Inda and Rosaldo economic systems of a huge, often intercontinental The development of worldwide modes of transport scale. o and communication. o Ex: Romans, Babylonians, etc. o Time-space distantiation Anthony Giddens o Globalization stretching of social life across time An intensification of the links, modes of interaction, Globalization is just a new word for economic and space and flows that interconnect the world. imperialism or cultural Westernization. o Remote encounters win over face-to-face A stretching of social, cultural, political and economic o Although it is true that rich countries are dominant, practices across frontiers so as to make possible action the situation is not static. interaction. at a distance. o o Direction of flows is not unilateral. o Times-spaces compression David Harvey A heightened entanglement of the global and local. o Globalization == Westernization. o The shoe, how it is made and exported. Globalization means homonogenization. o Misleading; participation in globaltransnational o Shrinking of space and the compression of time. processes often entails a vitalization of local cultural expressions which depend on an overseas market for their survival. Globalization is opposed to human rights o Global spread of human rights is one of the most Other Dimensions of Globalization Erikson spectacularly successful forms of globalization Disembedding (de-location) o Distance is irrelevant, relative or at the very least experienced in the world. o Workers rights? but it is only thanks to the less important globalization of political ideas that local o All means through which social life becomes communities and organizations can argue effectively abstracted from its local, spatially fixed context. against them and canvas for support from Acceleration o Speed of transport and communication has transnational NGOs and governments overseas. increased. Distance no longer means separation. Threat to local identities Standardization o Comparability and shared standards (ex: English) www.notesolution.com o was assumed to happen by getting rid of state TOURISM Dominican Republic (Gregory) policies and barriers. Flows of good, ideas, money, and people would be pervasive and unimpeded. Tourism in the DR is a big business and what drives the economy since the 90s Friction is required to keep global power in motion. The beach becomes a symbolic space where globalization can be visualized through the o Roads create pathways that make motion easier and interactions between foreigners and residents more efficient, but in doing so they limit where we creating a spatial economy of difference. go. o Also serves as confinement. o Small businesses and petty trade on the beaches. Friction inflects historical trajectories, enabling, excluding and particularizing. o Outside these beach zones, even more informal Awkwardness economy (services and goods) Not everyone has the same capacity for mobility. Gregory focuses on the production and policing of People and places whose experience are marginal to Roles(s) of globalization (ECONOMY) division of labor and the inequalities that this or excluded from these movements and links People as invisible when speaking about IMFWB influences the local economies of expresses and secures. globalization. developing countries. The politics of identity are fused with the everyday Assuming that the world is becoming a smaller place politics of making a living but how? does not mean that we are becoming more alike, that SAPs encourages privatization and free trade everyone is accounted for equally, or the people He speaks of the field of antagonism and conflict that experience these changes in the same way. o Privatization Public assets are taken over by private companies in order to make a profit. The is at the centre of the lives of his informants. Little to no access to transport and means for communication (price is too high) price goes up for the consumers (citizens). o Work more, get less. Disjuncture (Appadurai) o Free Trade Great idea but not everyone starts on The increase of tourism in Boca Chica drew many the same common ground. Therefore, informal migrants from the outlying rural areas and created global village underplays the importance of a economy becomes dominant. concurrent movement toward ironies and floating populations most of who helped create a resistances, sometimes camouflaged as passivity and huge informal economy. a bottomless appetite in the Asian world for things Citizenship and the politics of exclusion western. Importance of Disjuncture and Friction Imagination as a social practice. However one mans imagined community is another mans political prison he also says. By posing global Raise concern with the less spoken about; chaotic, capitalisms and its homogenizing tendencies as real, divisive, violent aspects of global privatization and THE INFORMAL ECONOMY Dominican Republic capitalism. (Gregory) we somethings forget the reality of hegemonic strategies that are also in play. Raising awareness of the contextual and culturally Label that exists outside the formal wage-labor specific (sometimes invisible) aspects of this thing relations and outside state regulation Friction (Tsing) the awkward, unequal, unstable and creative qualities called globalization. While the world informal suggests that it is outside of interconnection across difference. the formal economy, it needs to be looked at as an Heterogeneous and unequal ecountars can lead to new intrinsic part of the overall structure of change. arrangement of culture and power. The promise of globalization and its image as a well- o Hustlers, gangsters, delinquents, black markets oiled machine motion without restraint are these considered normal? www.notesolution.com
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