•Coming together of cultures
•Outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies)
•Consistent circulation of people and/or things
•Increase flow of communication of technology.
•Increasing “interconnectedness” of the world
•Ideologies of Freedom/Human rights
“Three Dimensions of Globalization” – Erikson
•Increased trade and transnational economic activity.
•Faster and denser communications networks.
•Tensions between (and within) cultural groups have
“What Globalization is not” – Erikson
•Globalization is really recent, and began only in the
oNot the case. World systems have existed earlier in a
sense that people all over the world have
participated, often involuntary, in political and
economic systems of a huge, often intercontinental
oEx: Romans, Babylonians, etc.
•Globalization is just a new word for economic
imperialism or cultural Westernization.
oAlthough it is true that rich countries are dominant,
the situation is not static.
oDirection of flows is not unilateral.
oGlobalization =/= Westernization.
•Globalization means homonogenization.
oMisleading; participation in global/transnational
processes often entails a vitalization of local cultural
expressions which depend on an overseas market for
•Globalization is opposed to human rights
oGlobal spread of human rights is one of the most
spectacularly successful forms of globalization
experienced in the world.
oWorkers rights? but it is only thanks to the
globalization of political ideas that local
communities and organizations can argue effectively
against them and canvas for support from
transnational NGOs and governments overseas.
•Threat to local identities
oLocal identities are usually strengthened because
people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly
only when it appears to be threatened.
oOn the other hand, it is evidently true that local
power is often weakened as a result of globalization.
“What is new?” – Erikson
•End of the Cold War (Communism vs Capitalism)
oFree markets (USA) vs closed markets (USSR)
oLed to global alliances
otwo bloc system to a one bloc system
oCapitalism over socialism/communism.
oFree trade evangelized.
•Internet/other forms of technology
o“Global Village” – Marshall McLuhan
oTerm that designates the new mass media situation.
oCreation of shared frames of reference and mutual
knowledge between people from across the globe.
o* Too simple of a term, argues other
oTime-space distantiation – Anthony Giddens
oGlobalization – stretching of social life across time
oRemote encounters win over face-to-face
oTimes-spaces compression – David Harvey
o“The shoe”, how it is made and exported.
oShrinking of space and the compression of time.
Other Dimensions of Globalization – Erikson
oDistance is irrelevant, relative or at the very least
oAll means through which social life becomes
abstracted from its local, spatially fixed context.
oSpeed of transport and communication has
increased. Distance no longer means separation.
oComparability and shared standards (ex: English)
oNetworks connecting people across continents are
becoming denser, faster and wider.
oEntire world is on the move, or so it seems.
oCultural crossroads – friction AND mutual influence
oWeakening, and sometimes obliteration of
oCountervailing forces opposing the other dimensions
and positing alternatives.
Objective globalization – incorporated into a global, or a
wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily
being aware of it.
Subjective globalization – acknowledgement of such
processes taking place.
Characteristics of Globalization – Inda and Rosaldo
•The development of worldwide modes of transport
•An intensification of the links, modes of interaction,
and flows that interconnect the world.
•A stretching of social, cultural, political and economic
practices across frontiers so as to make possible action
at a distance.
•A heightened entanglement of the global and local.