ANTC09 Final Exam Study Sheet.docx

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ANTC09 Final Exam Study Sheet
Transnational adoption: child care arrangement in which a couple adopts a child into their
family who is of a different nationality than them and across borders. Transnational adoption
must meet requirements of both the adoptee's and adopters countries of residence. An
example is an American couple adopting a Chinese newborn from China
Kinning: the process by which a fetus or new born child (or previously unattached person) is
brought into a significant and permanent relationship with a group of people that is expressed in
a kin idiom
*Transubstantiation: the incorporation of transnational adopted children into their adopted
parents’ kin network. The biological essence of the child (i.e. outward appearance) remains the
same, while the social essence (i.e. being, self) is changed through incorporation to the new kin
network (or kinning)
o Divided into 4 stages:
Pre-pregnancy: begins when a couple decides they want to have a child
Pregnancy: begins when a couple is approved by authorities to adopt a child.
Unlike physical pregnancy, the duration is uncertain (may take up to 3 years in
Birth: begins when a child is allocated to a couple and follows through to child’s
arrival and initial period after arrival
Daily life
Planting a child: the process by which a child is symbolically planted into its new community and
kinship network by distancing it from its biological origins through immersing it in its new
culture. This is done to incorporate a new social identity (i.e. cause transubstantiation) e.g.
dressing them in Norwegian clothes, picturing them doing Norwegian things
Bunad: the Norwegian national costume worn on Norwegian holidays and special occasions
Return visits/Motherland tours: return visits to the adoptee’s country of origin. This is primarily
to help the adoptee acknowledge the dual source of their identity and also to confirm them as a
kinned Norwegian (or whatever kin they were adopted to) person
US Adoption policies: most adoption records are not open but are instead sealed and the child
no longer sees or has other contact with the birth parents at least until age 18
Biological mothers vs adoptive mothers: primarily touched on in Gailey’s article, it refers to the
clashing ideologies of motherhood that surface in custody/adoption cases. Is the biological
mother more important than the social mother? Is there a unique connection made between a
woman and her biological child (i.e. birth bond)
Obstacles in adopting:
Missing girls: the imbalance in China relating to the number of female to male babies. The ratio
reveals a lower than expected number of girls to boys, with girls missing. This could eventually
cause a marriage squeeze in China
Overseas Korean Foundation: a division of South Korea’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
in Kim’s article that staged a ‘wedding ceremony’ in which adoptees became reacquainted with
South Korean culture. OKF directs motherland tours and immerses visiting adoptees intensely in
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Korean culture while they visit. The wedding has both political (boosts Korean economy via
returning people and investment from them and boosts Korea global image) and affective
dimensions (for the individual to feel authentically South Korean)
*Disidentification: a space in which alienations, in the cultural, political and economic sense,
can be rearticulated in oppositional forms. It allows for the exploration of alternative political
and cultural subjectivities that emerge within the continuing effects of displacement
Open adoptions: An agreement or commitment that the birth family and adoptive family make
to each other and to the child to be part of each other’s lives. This involves not alienating the
birth family from their biological child, but instead maintaining ties with them
Full disclosure: this is when the detail of a child’s adoption, including their genealogical history,
are fully made known to an adoptee
*Global family: the larger family at large (including transnational) of a particular people that is
created as a result of globalization, communications, technology, and the movements of people
e.g. Korean global family
Wedding adoptees: transnationally adopted Koreans who return to their country and are
essentially ‘wedded’ back to South Korea via intense cultural immersion and symbolic ‘wedding’
The “search”: refers to an adoptees search for their biological parents not in order to look for
family, but instead find and understand their roots which is central to their identity
To know who I am: relates to the search
Gay kinship: gay kinship is alot of the times constructed of a chosen family that is socially
constructed e.g. friends are incorporated as kin. Commitment and love in friendship is what
primarily creates lasting kin ties in the gay community, which is stigmatized because of their
*Assimilation: referred to in Weston’s article, she discusses whether gay kinship ideologies are
being assimilated (or joined) into dominant discourses but just under a different guise (101)
*Transformation: refers to the transformation the dominant bio-genetic paradigm for kinship
undergoes in gay ideologies. Gay kinship instead puts an emphasis on kinship ties being socially
created, with permanence in kin relations no longer ascribed to blood, but produced through
love and commitment
Chosen families: a family that is socially constructed by gay and lesbian individuals that includes
people specifically chosen due to their love and commitment in friendship despite the
stigmatization of the choosing individual. Chosen families are in contrast to biological families
that one has no choice in choosing
Bowers vs. Hardwick: a US court case in which Hardwick, a homosexual man, was convicted on
account of having consensual sex with a male partner. The ruling against Hardwick was upheld
by the US supreme court, which at the time had no laws that protected the right to engage in
homosexual sex in Georgia
*Civil code 230: encourages judges to consider men’s social fathering when making fatherhood
determinations. It encourages judges to emphasize the social aspects of parenting for men but
not women. It allows for such scenarios as an unmarried man being declared the father of a
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*Civil code 193: establishes that when a child is conceived during a time when the mother is
living in the same house as her husband, and the husband is not impotent, the child is presumed
to be legitimate and belonging to the husband.
*Uniform Parentage Act: subsumes civil code 193 and details the presumed father statute
*Curiale vs. Reagan: a legal case in which the non-biological lesbian mother, Curiale, was
battling for her co-parenting rights to a child born to them via artificial insemination of Reagan.
Because Curiale was not the biological mother, the court was unable to acknowledge her as a de
facto parent and thus she had no basis to maintain co-parent rights to the child. This case is
important because it shows the difficulty courts face in determining whether a woman who is
not a genetic, birth, or adoptive mother can be granted legitimate mother status
*Nancy S. Vs Michele G: this case is similar to the one above and involved visitation rights to
their two children, which Nancy was the biological mother to (via artificial insemination). The
couple broke up and Michele had to prove to convince the court that she was a legitimate
mother. She based her claims on her being a de facto parent (granted), claimed in loco parentis
in regards to the children (not granted), the children recognizing her as mother (social mother),
and she fitting the functional definition of a parent
*De facto parent: a person who daily assumes the role of parent, seeking to fulfill both the
child’s physical needs and his psychological need for affection and care
*In loco parentis: In loco parentis is a legal doctrine describing a relationship similar to that of a
parent to a child. It refers to an individual who assumes parental status and responsibilities for
another individual, usually a young person, without formally adopting that person.
Loomis v State of California: a 1964 case which was the precedent by which a person who has
assumed the role of a lawful parent and its obligations, without going through formalities for
legal adoption, stands in locus parentis, which includes the rights, duties, and liabilities they
incur being equal to that of a lawful parent
Equitable estoppels/estoppel: a term that originated in contract law which prevented someone
from alleging something they had previously denied, or denying something they had previously
Valle vs. Valle: a 1975 case in which elements of estoppels were legitimized to be used in
determining that a father-child relationship was legitimate even though the social father may
not be the biological father of a child in question, had not legally adopted the child, and was not
married to the child’s legal mother
KC vs. LW: a lesbian couple that went to court over visitation rights. The nonbiological mother
attempted to gain legal recognition for her social mothering based on the fact that she was a de
facto parent. She however took a different route in court, not arguing for her position as a
mother, but as a guardian to avoid the biologically based definition of a mother contained in the
Uniform Parentage Act.
West v Superior Court: in this case, the nonbiological mother sued her former partner alleging
breach of contract, an oral contract to raise a family together. She argued that she performed all
the duties of a parent, and that her partner breached contract by denying her her role as parent
after they broke up. Claimant used a breach of contract case instead of child custody to avoid
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