Anthropology Final Exam Notes

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 Final Homo sapiens; Chapter 12 & 13 Anatomically Modern Humans: ∙ Fossils appear ~ 200,000ya. ∙ Eastern and Southern Africa. ∙ Genetics also suggest 200,000ya. AMHS Early Fossils: Population Movements: ∙ AMHS are in southwest Asia by 100,000ya. ∙ Eventually reaching Europe & Australia by 50,000ya and North America ??? ∙ Either through Out of Africa II (Recent African Origin) model or Multiregional hypothesis. Upper Palaeolithic Revolution?: ∙ By 50,000ya great explosion of artefact types and evidence for abstract thought that expresses cultural creativity. ∙ Modern human behaviour. ∙ Upper Palaeolithic Revolution OR, ∙ Gradualism. Great Leap Forward: ∙ Complex artefacts only appear at 40 to 50kya. ∙ Based on a genetic mutation or biological reorganization of the brain in AMHS at this time. ∙ Some claim it is access to shellfish and omega fatty acids. The list- Assumes Language: ∙ Finely made tools based on blades. ∙ Evidence for fishing and catching birds. ∙ Evidence for long distance trade. ∙ Systematic use of pigment, jewelry for self-ornamentation (non-utilitarian objects). ∙ Works of art. ∙ Game playing. ∙ Elaborate burials. Cave art: ∙ European forms – animals. ∙ African forms – people. Located on Ceilings and Walls: ∙ Tend to be placed in caves with little evidence for habitation. ∙ In difficult or dangerous locations. ∙ Lascaux Cave. Hands: Numerous negative & positive hand imprints. Venus of Willendorf: ∙ Willendorf Austria. ∙ 11cm high. ∙ Limestone. Venus of Brassempouy: ∙ Pyranees. ∙ Ivory. ∙ 25kya. ∙ Earliest depiction of a human face. Male Figures: ∙ In Europe male figures are rare. ∙ Typically wearing costumes depicting shamans or dancers. ∙ Cat and bear costumes are most common. ∙ In Africa they are more common. ∙ In Africa Therianthropes, men with animal bodies and vice versa. Man Wearing Lion Mark: ∙ Hohlenstien, Germany. ∙ Ivory painted with ochre. ∙ 28cm high. ∙ Tattoos on arm? Man wearing bear costume? ∙ Mas-D’Azil, France ∙ Ivory plaque. ∙ 8cm high Therianthrope: ∙ Man with a springback head and hooves. ∙ Western Cape South Africa. Burial: Earliest undisputed burial with grave goods is an AMHS at Qafzeh, Israel at 90,000ya. On the Other Hand...: ∙ Gradualism. ∙ Evidence for these traits is found much earlier in Africa. ∙ Gradual accumulation of skills and culture over hundreds of thousands of years. ∙ The fluorescence of these traits (the list) is based on sociocultural evolution. Tools: ∙ Bone points and finely made blade industries at 77,000ya at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Fishing: ∙ Harpoons date to 90,000ya at Katanda, Congo. ∙ Fish bones date to 82,000ya at Blombos. Ornamentation: At Blombos these Nassarius kraussianus beads date to 75,000ya Burial: ∙ Neaderthals were burying their dead. ∙ Shanidar & Kebara. ∙ And they may have has a bear cult... earliest form of religion? Population Movements and Cultures: ∙ By 40,000ya most of the Old World was inhabited, only the Arctic was not. ∙ Upper Palaeolithic cultures. ∙ Typically identified on took types. ∙ Blade based tool industries (length 2x width). ∙ First arrival in Europe-Aurginacian. Gravettian 27 to 21kya in Western Europe: ∙ Developed in Europe. ∙ Smaller blades. ∙ Denticulate knives cutting tools with pointed projections along their cutting edges. ∙ Also boom in artistic expression. Solutrean 21 to 16 kya: Exquisite bifacially flaked, symmetrical, leaf shaped projectile points. Megdelanian 16 to 11kya: ∙ Very small micro blades. ∙ Bone and antler tools. Subsistence Strategies: ∙ Broadening of diet through time to include small meat packages. ∙ More efficient hunting strategies. ∙ Habitual hunters. ∙ Use of nets by 27kya. First Australians: ∙ Strongest evidence points to 40kya. ∙ Some suggest 60kya. ∙ Early sites are located along the coast. ∙ People moved inland following river valleys. ∙ Inland desert inhabited by 25 to 20 kya. Skeletal Evidence: ∙ May have been 2 waves of colonization or else one group evolved substantially. ∙ Earliest skeletons are gracile. ∙ Later skeletons are robust, like modern Aborigines. The Americas: ∙ Long standing theory was that Asian migrants moved into the Americans in numerous waves alone the Bering Straight land bridge & through ice free corridor. ∙ During periods of glaciations. ∙ Following herds of mammoths and other large animals. ∙ Roughly 12 to 13kya. New Ideas: ∙ Numerous early sites suggest that perhaps the Americas were inhabited much earlier. ∙ 20 to 50kya. ∙ Following the coastline instead of the land bridge. Siberia: ∙ Earliest site at 27kya due to inhospitable environment, flourishing at 18kya and again at 13 kya. ∙ They hunter woolly mammoth, bison and reindeer. ∙ Similar tool industries between Siberia and America, but with some time lag. Sites: ∙ Bluefish Caves, near Beringia, 15 to 13kya. ∙ Meadowcroft Rockshelter, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 12,800 ya. ∙ Topper in South Carolina, artefacts below the Clovis deposit date to 20kya and charcoal to 50 kya. ∙ Monte Verde, Chile range from 13,500 to 11,800ya. Coastal Routes: ∙ During glaciations, the continental shelf was exposed. ∙ The modern coastline was inland. ∙ Therefore coastal sites may be present, hundreds of meters below water. ∙ Fedje & Josenhans found stone artefacts that date to 10kya, 53m below the Ocean. Skeletal Material: ∙ Small sample with only 30 individuals > 8500ya ∙ Oldest are around 11ky old and Kennewick man is 9ky old. ∙ Modern Native Americans share many similarities with modern people from Northeast Asia. ∙ But the earliest Native Americans do not share traits with either of the modern groups. mtDNA: ∙ mtDNA study. ∙ There are 5 haplogroups (A, B, C, D, & X) in North America and all haplogroups are found in northeast Asia. ∙ The amount of genetic similarity suggests a split 25 to 20kya between Native Americans and Asians from the Lake Baikal region. Paleo-Indians: ∙ By 12kya, first truly successful groups. ∙ Clovis points (were hafted) ∙ Hunter woolly mammoths, and other large game. ∙ Drove them over cliffs. ∙ Lived in a range of habitats and spread quickly. Origins of Agriculture; Chapter 14 Pleistocene/Holocene: ∙ Extinction of certain species required a shift in subsistence strategies – hunter-gatherers. ∙ The development of localized cultures as different responses to change. └ Expand and broaden diet to include species previously unavailable. └ Some regions had great bounty and people became more sedentary based on that food patch. └ Narrowed diet and focus intensely on a few specific species. Europe = Mesolithic Period in North America = Archaic period Plains Hunters: ∙ From Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico. ∙ The Great Bison Belt. ∙ Maintained bug game hunting with focus on the last on the megafauna: Bison. ∙ Bison bone bed at Head-Smashed-in near Calgary. ∙ A continuation of the Paleo-Indian culture. The Desert West: ∙ The Great Basin, west and southwest grasslands, very few if any Bison. ∙ Small bands using temporary sites, highly mobile, true desert adaptation, based on water. ∙ Relied heavily on vegetation, using basketry and grinding stones. Coastal groups focused on shellfish and riverine fish – i.e. the Northwestern Coast. Eastern North America: ∙ Woodlands and forests, from Nova Scotia to Florida (Shell Mound Archaic). ∙ Broad variety of resources from acorns, squirrels, white tailed deer, cotton tailed rabbits, shellfish, and riverine species. ∙ As the environment continues to get better, resources were abundant. ∙ Populations grew, became more sedentary and society become more complex. Inuit & Aleuts: ∙ Relatively recent migration into North America eventually reaching Greenland by 2000BC. ∙ Lived by sea mammal exploitation mainly whales and seals. ∙ Range of artefact types, including umiaks, kayaks, and various harpoon technologies. Meanwhile in Africa & Middle East: ∙ Increased use of plant species. ∙ Hunting less important that it has been. ∙ Abundance of sickles and grindstones for processing grasses. ∙ The presence of carbonized wild barley, oats, wheat, and rye. Neolithic Revolution: ∙ Actually a slow process, not a revolution. ∙ Shift from hunting and gathering to food production (agriculture & pastoralism). ∙ Includes domestication of plants and animals. ∙ To ensure a constant, reliable, and expanded food supply. ∙ Allowed for increase sedentism, population growth, and new social structures. Dogs: ∙ One of the earliest species to be domesticated, probably used as hunting companions. ∙ Domesticated from Wolves. ∙ Nature selects wolves with big teeth and aggressive natures but there is still variation within the population, some are timid. ∙ People may have cares for orphaned pups and the timid ones would have been artificially selected and bred. Domestication = Artificial Selection: ∙ Domestication uses artificial Selection to change an animal or plant to suit human needs. ∙ Usually not the same traits that are naturally selected. ∙ They survive because individual plants or animals are cared for. Plants: ∙ Early domestication was probably not intentional. ∙ Select the berries with the largest fruit. ∙ Latrine effect, plants with large berries near to camp. ∙ Domesticated berries have larger fruit. Signs of Domestication: In plants we see changes from will to domestic forms └ Seed size └ Sees coat thickness └ Seed dispersal mechanism Seed Size: ∙ Latrine effect. ∙ Larger seeds germinate faster and so are not weeded out, while the plants of slower germinating seeds. (smaller seeds) are removed during weeding. ∙ Over numerous generations the mean size of the plants gets bigger. Seed Coat Thickness: ∙ In nature it is advantageous to have a thick seed coat. ∙ To forestall germination until the last killing frosts are over. ∙ To prevent digestion if consumed by birds *some species have co-evolved. ∙ But late germination is disadvantageous in a human controlled environment because early germination and vigorous growth is selected. ∙ So individuals with thing seed coats are inadvertently selected by humans. Seed Dispersal Mechanisms: ∙ In nature it is advantageous to have ripe seeds that are easily dispersed by the wind or passing animals. ∙ But easily detached seeds make human harvesting difficult as seeds fall to the round. ∙ We have inadvertently selected for seeds with greater adherence to the stalk. Geographic Distribution: ∙ When people more around on the landscape, we typically take things of important with us. ∙ If plants are identified in an archeological assemblage hat are not native to the area, they were likely introduced as domesticated species. Domestication of Animals: ∙ Taming. ∙ Tethered of penned. ∙ Acclimatize to human presence. ∙ Eventually domesticated forms rely on humans for survival. Recognizing Domesticated Animals: ∙ Size selection. ∙ Smaller wolves were initially selected for as seen in the archaeological record with early domestic dogs having smaller jaws. ∙ Wild Cattle were also selected for smaller size, while horses got bigger. ∙ Any change in size from a wild form is most likely due to domestication. Geographic Distribution: ∙ Just like plants, when animals are found outside of their native regions it is most likely due to people taking domestic forms with them as they more across the landscape. ∙ Different selection pressures in new regions may further alter their appearance. Population Characteristics: ∙ Hunting wild animals is difficult and specific individuals are not always obtained i.e. prime adults vs old adults. ∙ However in domestication, people can select which individuals are consumed. ∙ Typical pastoralist practice preserves the females to produce more young while males are culled for meat. ∙ You only need a few males to continue the population. Osteological Changes: ∙ Based on lifestyle as opposed to genetics.
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