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Mary Silcox

ANTA01 MIDTERM REVIEW CHAPTER 1 The Biocultural Approach -tracing the changing interaction between biology and culture of humans -culture can be described as the strategy where people adapt to the natural and social environments in which they live, ex: stone tools  computers -encultration: where individuals learn values and norms from family and society What is Anthropology? Cultural Anthropology -the study of all aspects of human behaviour, rooted in the Enlightenment -ethnographies: detailed study of human societies (study of non-western) Physical Anthropology -study of human biology -comes with curiosity of how modern species came to be -concerned with human variation because of adaptation -knowledge of soft tissue anatomy and structure is important -paleoanthropology is the study of human evolution -osteology: study of the skeleton -forensic anthropology: helps to identify skeletal remains or a where a body is found Archaeology -the study of human past through examtination and study of its material remains -human activities and by-products enter the archaeological record, primary data source Linguistic Anthropology -study of human speech and language -use of language shapes culture and perceptions; ex, a prof with a southern accent would seem exotic in Australia but would not be taken seriously in an American university The Scientific Method -empirical: relying on experiment or observations, Latin meaning “experienced” -hypothesis is made to explain observations The Anthropological Perspective MAIN THEME: how and why did humans become so successful? -foods we eat derive from plants/animals but were not available for development 10,000 yrs ago chewing and digesting were well established 10, 000 yrs ago CHAPTER 2 Precursors of the Theory of Evolution John Ray Carlous Jean-Baptiste Georges Thomas Charles Lyell Linnaeus Lamarck Cuvier Mallthus developed the established explain Introduced pop. size is argued that concept of species; system of evolutionary extinction; limited by geological first to recognize binomial process; catastrophism availability of processes in the that groups can be nomenclature; environment theory, resources present are the distinguished genus/species, change leads disaster which lead to same as those in differently and class and to animal destroy life competition the past; similarly based on order; basis of habits to and restock for food; uniformitarianism abilities taxonomy change with new life James Hutton: modeled the earth as a self-regulating system; a cycle to the way things work The Discovery of Natural Selection Alfred Russell Wallace -first to write about natural selection but did not publish his work Charles Darwin -known for the theory of natural selection -transmutation: another word for evolution Natural Selection -the key to evolution -the passing on of traits, which create a stronger species, and depending on the ability of the species to adapt to changing environments -example: gray moths camouflaged with tree trunks, black ones did not and therefore; eliminated by birds who were the selective agent that applied selective pressure to moths -cannot occur without population variation, can only act on traits that affect reproduction Constraints on 19 Century Evolutionary Theory -no one understood the source of variation; 1953, DNA was discovered Opposition to Evolution -most people are raised in belief systems that don’t emphasize biological continuity -people want clear answers CHAPTER 3 The Cell -two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic -the eukaryotic cell is a 3D structure that contains a variety of structures such as the nucleus -nucleus contains 2 acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) the nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm which contains other structures responsible for breaking down nutrients, and protein synthesis -another two types of cells: somatic, responsible for muscle/bone/skin/nerves/heart/brain, and gametes, involved in reproduction DNA Structure and Function -DNA directs cellular functions and is made up of 2 chains of nucleotides: made of sugar, phosphate and one of the four bases ATCG, key to how DNA works (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine) DNA Replication -replication enables organisms to grow and tissues to heal -mitosis and meiosis Protein Synthesis -proteins are made up of amino acids, proteins are different depending on the number and arrangement of amino acids (groups of 3 bases) -the DNA provides instructions while the RNA reads and performs them -the gene, is a sequence of DNA that is responsible for protein synthesis -mutation is a change in DNA sequence -regulatory genes make proteins other genes on and off -homeobox/hox genes direct the segmentation of the overall body plan of embryonic development The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel -Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics who discovered that physical traits can be expressed in various ways with his pea experiment -blending inheritance a smooth and wrinkled pea mate you get a somewhat wrinkled pea -particular inheritance: smooth and wrinkled peas results in more smooth peas and wrinkled peas Mendel’s Principle of Segregation -genes occur in pairs -during gamete production, members of each pair separate so that each gamete contain one of each Dominance and Recessiveness st -Mendel realized that a trait in the 1 gen did not disappeared but was just overpowered -variation of genes are called alleles, different forms of a gene that can direct the cell to make a different version of the same protein -homozygous, and heterozygous alleles -genotype, an organism’s entire genetic makeup; phenotype, the detectable physical characteristic of an organism Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment -genes that code for different traits assort independently during gamete formation Mendelian Inheritance in Humans -traits of simple inheritance; example would be ABO blood types; monogenic -mendelian traits are less likely to be influenced by environmental factors -polygenic inheritance is influenced by many genes, have continuous variation Modern Evolutionary Theory; The Modern Synthesis -we define evolution as a 2-stage process 1. The production and redistribution of variation … 2. Natural selection acting on this variation A Current Definition of Evolution -microevolution: small changes occurring within species; change in alleles -macroevolution: changes provided after many generations; appearance of new species Evolutionary Processes -mutation and gene flow: exchange of genes between populations -genetic drift, changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors, a result of small pop. founder effect, when allele frequencies are altered in small groups that were taken from larger populations fission, changes in frequency of variants in a population as a result of division CHAPTER 5 Discovering the Human Place in the Organic World -classification was developed to deal with diversity, a system that organizes diversity into categories and indicates evolutionary relationships more than 20 groups called phyla in the kingdom, and then chordata, animals with nerve cords, and gills, vertebrates with vertebral columns Principles of Classification -taxonomy, field that specializes in establishing rules of classification -homologies are structures that are shared by species who have a common ancestor -analogies are similarities based on common function -homoplasy: the process that leads to development of analogies such as wings in birds and butterflies Constructing Classifications and Interpreting Evolutionary Relationships -2 major approaches when interpreting evolutionary Relationships 1. Evolutionary systematics: presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters illustrates the hypothesized evolutionary relationship using a phylogenetic tree, this includes time 2. Cladistics: attempts to make evolutionary interpretations based on analysis of homologous character focuses on traits that distinguish lineages that share a common ancestor, clade shows relationships in a cladogram, these do not indicate time Definition of Species -biological species concept: groups of individuals capable of interbreeding but are isolated from other groups example: baboons are separated by a river; can only mate within the area behind the river boundary -speciation, where new species evolve from an earlier species Interpreting Species and Other Groups in the Fossil Record -many factors in interpreting species: age and body size, teeth, sexual dimorphism Recognizing Fossil Genera -next level of taxonomy classification is genus, group of closely related species; ex, horses and donkeys What Are Fossils and How Do They Form? -fossils are traces of ancient organisms and can be formed in many ways -when an organism dies, hard tissues are fused with minerals which transform into a fossil; mineralization -taphonomy, study of bones and other materials buried in the earth and preserved as fossils Vertebrate Evolutionary History: A Brief Summary -geologists have formulated the geological time scale, immense time spans that are organized into eras that include one or more periods Mesozoic, Cenozoic; epochs, further divided subdivision of a period—Paleocene, Eocene for Cenozoic -positions of earth’s continents have dramatically shifted; continental drift (plate tectonics) Mammalian Evolution -3 major sub-groups of living mammals 1. Egg-laying (monotremes) 2. Pouched (marsupials) 3. Placental -development of heterodont (dentition) and gestation differ, a difference in the ability to maintain internal body temperature—endothermic Adaptive Radiation -takes places when species take advantage
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