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Anthropolgy Midterm.doc

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2011-10-24 1 Chapter 2: The Development of Evolutionary Theory Brief History of Evolutionary Thought Natural Selection: The most critical mechanism of evolutionary changes, first articulated by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in population due to differential reproductive successes between species Fixity of Species: The notion that species, once created, can never really change; an idea diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution Precursors to the Theory of Evolution John Ray (1627-1705): Developed concept of species. First person to recognize that groups of plants and animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce offspring. Placed such groups of reproductively isolated organims in a single category --> species. Species frequently shared similarities with other species --> genus. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): Developing the method of classifying plants and animals. He included humans in his classifying of animals, placing them in the genus Homo and species sapiens. Binomial Nomenclature: In taxonomy, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species. Example: Homo Sapiens refer to human beings Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1802): Life originated in the seas and that all species had descended from common ancestor Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829): Attempted to explain the evolutionary process. Suggested a dynamic relationship between species and the environment, if the external environment changed, an animal's activity patterns would also change to accommodate circumstances. Result in increased or decreased use of certain body parts, those body parts would be modified.Alteration would make the animal better suited to its habitat, the new trait would be passed on to offspring --> The inheritance of acquired traits. According to this theory, a trait acquired by an animal during his lifetime would be passed on to offspring = WRONG, only the traits that are influenced by genetic information contained with sex cells can be inherited. Example: Giraffes Georges Cuvier (1769-1832): Concept of extinction to explain the disappearance of animals represented by fossils Catastrophism: The view that earth's geological landscape is the result of violent and cataclysmic events. This view was promoted by Cuvier, especially in opposition to Lamarck Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): Argued for limits to human population growth and pointed out that human populations cold double in size every 25 years if they were kept in check by limited food supplies. Darwin and Wallace: When population size is limited by the availabilty resources, there must be constant competition for food and water. Competition between individuals is the ultimate key to 2011-10-24 2 understanding natural selection. Charles Lyell (1797-1875): Demonstrated that such forces as wing, water erosion, local flooding, frost, decomposition of vegetation, volcanoes, earthquakes, and glacial movements had all contributed in the past to produce geological landscape that exists in the present. Processes still occurred indicated that geological change was still happening and that the forces driving such change were consistent, or uniform, over time. Although various aspects of the earth's surface (Example: climate, plants, animals, and land surfaces) are variable through time, the underlying processes that influence them are constant. Slow-acting forces to produce momentous change the earth would have to be far older than anyone had previously suspected. Uniformitarianism: The theory that the earth's features are the results of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past. Elaborated on by Lyell, this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time Transmutation: The change of one species to another. The term evolution did not assume its current meaning until the late nineteenth century. Natural Selection in Action Reproductive success: The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age; and individuals genetic contribution to the next generation. Selective pressures: Factors in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals Fitness: Pertaining to natural selection, a measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals. Fitness can be measured by an individual's genetic contribution to next generation compared to that of other individuals. Example: In the initial stage the lighter moths were more fit because they produced more offspring. But as environment changed, the dark gray moths became more fit, and a further change reversed the adaptive pattern. Constraints on the Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid): The DNAstructures resembles that of a twisted ladder. Strands of sugar and phosphates are connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine Genome: The total set of the genetic material of an organism. Human genome comprises 24 different DNAmolecules in women and 25 different DNAmolecules in men.Appear to be 30 000 – 40 000 genes in the human genome Opposition of Evolution Biological Continuity: Refers to biological continuum – the idea that organisms are related though common ancestry and that traits present in one species are also seen to varying degress in others. When expression of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories, they exists on a continuum. Example: Colour and life form 2011-10-24 3 Chapter 3: Hereditary Evolution The Cell Nucleus:Astructure (organelle) found in all eukaryotic cells. Contains chromosomes Cytoplasm: The portion of the cell contained with the cell membrane excluding the nucleus. Proteins: Three-dimensional molecules that serve wide variety of functions through ability to bind to other molecules Protein Synthesis: The assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules Somatic Cells: All cells, except reproductive ones Gametes: Sex cells DNAStructure and Funtion Zygote: Acell formed in the union of an egg and a sperm cell Molecule: Astructure made up of two or more atoms Nucleotides: Basic units of DNAmolecules, composed of sugar, a phosphate unit and one of the four nitrogenous bases DNA Replication Enzymes: Proteins (strings of amino acids) that regulate the structure of the bodily cells and the processes occurring within those cells. Protein Synthesis Hemoglobin’s: Aprotein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen Genes: Small units of DNAthat direct synthesis of proteins and enzymes Mutations: Accidental alterations in the DNAcode withing in a single gene. Mutations can be either spontaneous, occurring naturally, or the result of environmental factors such as exposure to high-energy radiation. Example: Hemophilia Homeobox (hox) genes: An evolutionary ancient family of regulatory genes. Hox genes direct the segmentation and pattering all over the body plan during embryonic development Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosomes: Threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells; contain genes 2011-10-24 4 Autosomes: Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes: The chromosomes that contain the instructional code for the development of male or female sex characteristics. In females, the two sex chromosomes are labelled as X chromosomes, but in males the two molecules are of different types and labelled as X and Y chromosomes Mitosis Mitosis: Simple cell division; the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells Meiosis Meiosis: The form of cell division by which new sperm and ova are formed. The chromosomes within the cell are randomly arranged so that new sperm and ova contain 23 individual chromosomes, or half of those that are found in the bodily cells Recombination: The exchange of DNAbetween paired chromosomes during meiosis The Evolutionary Significance of Meiosis Clones:Aclone is an organism that is genetically identical to another organism The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): Explore various ways in which physical traits, such as colour or height, could be expressed in plant hybrids. Worked on garden peas Hybrids: Offspring of mixed ancestry; heterozygotes Mendel's Principle of Segregation Principle of Segregation: Genes (alleles) occur in pairs because (chromosomes occur in pairs) During gamete production, the members of each gene pair separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored and members of gene pairs (alleles) are reunited Dominance and Recessiveness Recessive: Describing a trait that is not expressed in heterozygotes; also refers to the allele that governs the trait. For a recessive allele to be expressed there must be two copies of the allele ( Example: the individual must be homozygous) Dominant: Describing a trait governed by an allele that can be expressed in the presence of another, different allele ( Example: heterozygous) Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes 2011-10-24 5 Locus: The position on a chromosome where a given gene occurs. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene Genotype: Organisms genetic makeup Phenotype: The outward expression of an organism's genotype, an organism's physical characteristics and behaviour Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Principle of IndependentAssortment: The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair. The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another. Example: plant height and seed colour are independent of each other Mendelian traits: Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples: blood types, such asABO. Many genetic disorders, including sickle cell anemia and Tay-sachs disease are also Mendelian traits Antigens: Large molecules found on the surface of cells. Several different loci governing antigens on red and white blood cells are known Co-dominance: The expression of both alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation, neither is the dominant nor the recessive; thus both influence phenotype. Example: when bothAand B alleles are present, both Aand B antigens can be detected on the surface of red blood cells, and blood type isAB * For a person to actually have a recessive disorder, he or she must have two copies of the recessive allele that causes it. Heterozygotes who have only one copy of a harmful recessive allele are unaffected but are called carriers. Polygenic Inheritance Polygenic: Referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci. Examples: stature, skin, colour, and eye colour. Many polygenic traits are also influenced by environmental factors. Polygenic inheritance in humans in skin colour, and the single most important factor influencing skin colour is the amount of melanin that is present Pg. 59 --> describes differences between Mendelian traits and Polygenic traits Genetic and Environmental Factors FINISH THIS LATER Chapter 6:An Overview of the Primates 2011-10-24 6 Introduction Prosimians: Members of suborder of primates. Includes lemurs, lorises and tarsiers Anthropoids: Members of a suborder of Primates, the suborderAnthropoidea. Traditionally includes monkeys, apes and humans Specialized: Evolved for a particular function; usually refers to a specific trait. Example: Scissor teeth. But also may refer to entire way of like of an organism. Example: horses and cattle’s hooves Primatologists: Scientists who study the evolution, anatomy, and behaviour of nonhuman primates. A. Limbs and Locomotion 1. Atendency toward erect posture (upper back) 2. Aflexible, generalized limb structure, which allows most primates to practice a number of locomotive behaviours 3. Hands and feet with a high degree of prehensility (grasping ability) (a) Retention of five digits on hands and feet (b) An oppossable thumb, in most species, a divergent and opposite big toe (c) Nails instead of claws (d) Tactile pads enriched with sensory nerve fibres at the ends of Digit B. Diet and teeth 1. Lack of dietary specialization 2. Ageneralized detention C. Diet and teeth 1. Colour vision 2. Depth perception. Stereoscopic vision: The condition whereby visual images are, to varying degrees, superimposed on one another. This provides for depth perceptions, or the perception of the external environment in three dimensions. Stereoscopic vision is partly a function of structures in the brain (a) Eyes positioned toward the front of the face (not to sides) (b) Visual information from each eye transmitted to visual centres in both hemispheres of the brain (c) Visual information organized into three-dimensional images by specialized structures in the brain itself 3. Decreased reliance on sense of smell (olfaction) 4. Expansion and increased complexity of the brain Prehensility: Grasping with the hands and, in many primates also the feet Dirunal: Active during day Nocturnal: Active During night 2011-10-24 7 Neocortox: The more recently evolved portions of the brain's cortex are involved with higher mental functions and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory modalities Sensory modalities: Different forms of sensation. Example: touch, pain, pressure, heat, cold, vision, taste, hearing and smell D. Maturation, learning and behaviours 1. Amore efficient means of fetal nourishment, longer periods of gestation, reduced numbers of offspring (single births the norm), delayed maturation, and longer life span 2. Agreater dependance on flexible, learned behaviour. 3. The tendency to live in social groups and the permanent association of adult males with the group 4. The tendency toward dinural activity patterns PrimateAdaptions Evolutionary factors Aboreal: Tree-living; adapted to life in the trees Adaptive niche: The entire way of life of an organism; what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators etc. Diet and teeth Midline: An anatomical term referring to a hypothetical line that divides body into right and left halves Cusps: The bumps on the chewing surfaces of the premolar and molar teeth. Example: carnivores have these to teat meat, whereas herbivores such as horses and cattle have molars with broad, flat surfaces. Morphology: The form (shape and size) of anatomical structures; can also refer to
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