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ANTA01 midterm notes

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Mary Silcox

CHAPTER 3 & 5: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION The Cell Mendelian vs. Polygenic Traits  The nucleus is an organelle in all  Mendelian traits are influenced by one eukaryotic cells that contains DNA gene, and show in the form of chromosomes/RNA. dominant/recessive disorders such as  DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid. cleft chin and albinism.  RNA = ribonucleic acid. Compared to  Polygenic traits are influenced by DNA, it has one more oxygen, only a more than one gene and their single helix, and has the base Uracil expression may be influenced by the (U) instead of Thymine (T) environment. There is no limit of phenotypic expression. Examples C A T G include skin color and height. G A U C Modern Evolutionary Theory  These organelles, nucleus, DNA, RNA  Evolution is now described as a two- and cytoplasm, are involved in the stage process. process of protein synthesis.  The production and  Proteins are made up of chains of redistribution of variation amino acids. There are 20 different (inherited differences) amino acids that, when grouped in  Natural selection acting on threes (codon), make different this variation, whereby proteins. DNA provides the inherited differences affect instructions for protein synthesis, but their ability to reproduce RNA reads the instructions and  Evolution can only occur when there assembles amino acids to form into is a change in allele frequency from proteins. one generation to the next.  There are two types of cells, somatic  Allele frequency is the cells (body tissues) and gametes percentage of all alleles at a (eggs and sperm). locus  Eggs and sperm unite to form  Microevolution is the small changes a zygote, which holds 46 that occur within a species, such as chromosomes organized into changes in allele frequencies. 23 pairs.  Macroevolution occurs when change is produced after many generations, DNA Structure and Function such as the appearance of a new species.  The DNA molecule is composed of two chains called nucleotides. Factors that Produce and Redistribute  A nucleotide is made up of: Variation  A sugar molecule  A phosphate unit  Mutation occurs when a gene is  And one of four bases altered. Mutations must occur in the (adenine, thymine,
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