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Anthropology Exam Review

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Mary Silcox

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Exam ANTHPOLOGY WAGWAN1232013 63600 AM What is Anthropology Anthropology is interested in the entire biological history of humans always studied a wide verity of cultures from around the worldHUMAN evolution PaleoanthropologyPaleoprimatology Study primite fossil PrimatologyStudy lemers etcCharles DarwinDid not have a lot of potential originally The beagle exposed him a lot of the biologically history of the land Islands tend to be the sites of adaptive radiation without a very specialized starting pointEventually evolves into a diversity of types ex the GalapagoesMaterial evidence of human evolutionNeanderthal 1 discovered in Germany in 1856 Virchow thought that this was a person with constant blows upon the skullalso who had horrible wrickits Now we no it is INFACT a close relative of oursThe problem of adaptation A fit between an organismits environment Adaptation a feature of an organism that increases the likelihood of its survival and reproduction in a particular environment Adaptive radiation the evolution of multiple divergent species from a single less specialized ancestral species Niche the role of a species in its environment ex Darwins finches How natural selection works The variation has to be there for natural selection to act upon it It explain evolutionextinction Evolutionary Processes Selection natural selection artificial selection sexual selection nonrandom mating eg inbreeding Mutation Genetic Drift gamete sampling fission founder effect evolutionary bottlenecks its a product of survivalSelection natural selection artificial selection sexual selection nonrandom mating eg inbreedingFission effectchanges in the frequency of variants in apopulation as a result of subdivision one outcome of founder effect can be an increase in the relative frequency of a rare type eg a gene for a disease such as porphyria like vampire Bottle neck effect one outcome of founder effect can be an decrease in the relative frequency of a rare type eg a gene for a disease such as porphyriacheetahs have gone through this Gene Flow Movement of genes between populations Makes the populations more similar by making there genetic makeup more alike Alleles Alternate forms of a gene Lewis et al p 50 Homozygous possessing two of the same allele Heterozygous possessing two different alleles Dominant allele the allele that is expressed in a heterozygote Recessive allele the allele that is not expressed in a heterozygote monogenic a characteristic coded for by only onegene ie one set of alleles Mendelian traits polygenic a characteristic coded for by more than one gene the complex interaction of multiple genes can
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