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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

WinterAnthro Notes • there are four fields for subfields for anthropology: cultural, linguistic, archeology, and biological anthropology • Ethnographic techniques are applied to the study of diverse subcultures and their interactions with one another in contemporary areas • Linguistic anthropology helps us (1) trace similarities between contemporary languages (2) teach us the development of language skills in human evolution • Biological anthropology is concerned with: human beings, non-human primates, our ancestors • Set of learned behaviours transmitted from one generation to the next by non-biological means • The human predisposition to assimilate culture and function within it is profoundly influenced by biological factors • Culture and biology interacted in such a way that humans are said to be the result of biocultural evolution • Capacity for culture depends on human biology and human biology depends on culture • Within the biological approach; big brains (biology)  ability to learn (culture) • Anthropological perspective helps us understand the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioural continuity within other species, and by learning about cultures we can avoid an ethnocentric view John Ray (1627 – 1705)  Biological definition of species  Groups of animals and plants could be distinguished by their ability to mate and produce offspring  First to use the categories genus and species Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778)  Systema naturae (1735)  he established the classification of species the way we know them today  7 basic layers or taxon levels; Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species  Binomial system – species as a Genus and then the species name  Homo sapiens (wise man) – record all of God’s creation to earth to expose Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 – 1829)  First to propose a mechanism for evolution  Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Change in environment  change in animal behaviour  Use or disuse of body part, modification of body part WinterAnthro Notes  Disuse  loss  Use  change in body part o Bodily need o “fluids and forces” George Cuvier (1769 – 1832)  Explained the fossil record as the result of a succession of catastrophes followed by new creation of events  The view that the
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