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Lectures after Midterm

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Genevieve Dewar

Lecture 8Early HomoOrder they were discoveredknow difference between hominins and hominoidsMiocene adaptive of apes58 million years ago we split from chimps3 different parts of australopithecines stil look like apesaustrolopithecines small brain apes walking on two legshomo habilis found in south and east Africa oldawan tools start to appear earlier than species found in fossil evidencetime frame of x axis we have considerable overlap of homo specimans and the end of the gracile periods taung child mrs ples forms and the robust forms 15 million year overlap where they are living together at the sametimeshow same data left on goes back 20 million years right goes back 2 million yearsleft chartfrom the Miocene to the Pleistocene based on oxygen isotopes we see major cooling of the planet 16 million years ago to the present we see the curve going towards the coldpast 2 million years on the right many more episodes of ice covering the planet especially at the poles all about fluctuation and rapid changepunctuated equilibrium after darwins publication of his book wrote a second book on the descent of man saying humans were evolved after he died so people wouldnt be madhe figured we could evidence of it in Africa of man existing back then because chimps and gorillas lived in Africa who look like us the most rather than the orangutans from asiahe wasnt the only one to make this suggestion scientists accepted natural selection but went to asia to check out orangutans cause they felt we looked like them morethe one on the right is called a calvarium skull looks like without the face found the femur too they were not found together eroding out of the same river bent but meters apart probably different individuals but he thought they were the same person back then large hominin called it a java man aka homo eructus named after the island found on in Indonesia obligate bioped no saggital crest oldest fossil found before the neanderthalsskull found on bottom right was found in england human like but jaw like is robust like an ape doesnt have a sagital crest though Piltown man greatest hoax ever found out it was fake cant find a skull together like that human skull orangutan jawaustrolopithecines are in the human lineagetaung child top right corner bipedal but ape like brainOluvai Gorge and early homoEast African Formsour ancestors could consume meatearly homo come from oluvai gorge where dear boy and boisei came fromleaky family looked for fossils there all the time found boisei there and an early homo large brain and toolsboisei was seen to be the first tool makers this was a species between taung child and java man twiggy homo habilis on the left picture human like teeth no saggital creast not as prognathic more advanced closer to humans than the austrolopithecinessome features that differenciate homo habilis from austrolopithecines is that the teeth at the back are smaller front teeth are bigger based on dentition they have a more generalised diet no saggital creast bigger brain but post crania isprimitive so were finding primitive and derived traits makes things morecomplicatedhomo eructus and twiggywiggy hasa small brain they are an in between form
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