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Genevieve Dewar

A01Chapter 10Homo erectusHominins were restricted to Africa for as long as 5 million yearsThe more widely dispersed hominins were anatomically and behaviourally different from their African ancestorsThey were much larger more committed to a completely terrestrial habitat used more elaborate stone tools and were capable of adapting culturally to the demands of the new environments into which they spreadAfter 2 mya theres less biological diversity in these hominins than is apparent in their preaustralopith and australopith predecessorsAll hominins found outside of Africa are all members of the genus HomoThe species for which most evidence is found is Homo eructusThe Lower Paleolithic stone tool industry called Acheulian developed across parts of Africa Asia and eventually EuropeAcheulian a lower paleolithic stone tool industry that includes bifacially worked hand axes and cleavers and many kinds of flake tools It began as early as 14 mya in Africa and spread across many parts of the temperate to tropical parts of Europe and Asia and ended 200000 ya The acheulian tool kit provides us with convincing evidence of increasing tool dependence by hominins who by this time inhabited several tropical and temperate regions of the Old WorldArchaeological record show that hominins were slowly constructing the basic elements of human cultureA New Kind of HomininAsianHomo eructusAfrican fossils into a separate species called Homo ergasterH eructus represents a different grade of evolution than their most ancient African predecessorsGrade a grouping of organisms sharing a similar adaptive pattern Grade isnt necessarily based on closeness of evolutionary relationship but it does contrast organisms in a useful way homo erectus with homo sapiensMorphology of Homo eructusBody size the nearly complete skeleton of nariokoteme we know that eructus was larger than earlier homininsQuite sexually dimorphicIf the nariokoteme boy lived to adulthood he wouldve been over 6 feetBrain size early homo brains ranged from small 500 to large 800 but h eructus brains ranged from 700 to 1250Cranial shape had a projecting nochal torus at the rear of the skullNochal torus pertaining to the neck a projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach used to hold up the headSagittal keel is a small ridge that runs front to back along the sagittal sutureThe first Homo eructus from AfricaThe cranial capacity of the Olduvai eructus skull is the largest of all the African eructus specimans14 million years ago in Olduvai a large individual very robust male H eructus was found16 million yeas ago at Nariokoteme West Turkana a nearly complete skeleton a young male was found18 mya in East Turkana the oldest well dated H erectus a great amount of variation seen among individuals possibly due to sexual dimorphismWho were the Earliest African EmigrantsNewly discovered fossils and artifacts from the Dmanisi site in the Republic of Georgia have been radiometrically dated 175 myaDmanisi hominins show up early but they also look different from the usual H erectus Dmanisi crania are similar to H erectus but the Dmanisi individuals are different from other hominin finds outside of AfricathFound a 4 skull that had a complete cranium of an older male he died with only one tooth remaining in his jaws his jawbones show advancedresorption of bone it seems he lived for several years without being able to chew his food David Lordkipanidze suggested that the individual required a fair amount of assistance to survive in an era when the only way to process food was to use your teethDmanisi hominins short small brainedHomo erectus from IndonesiaOn island of Java Dubois unearthed the upper portion of a skull called a skullcap a fossil that was to become internationally famousA femur was found 15 years away from the skullcap he claimed it was at the same level as the skullcap and he assumed that the skullcap and femur belonged to the same individualHomo erectus from ChinaSite called Zhoukoudian most intensively investigated Chinese Paleolithic siteZhoukoudian Homo erectus largest collection of H erectus found here 14 skullcaps other cranial pieces more than 100 isolated teeth but only a scattering of post cranial elements5025 000 ya at Ngandong Java very late survival of H erectus was found in Java670 000410 000 in Zhoukoudian Chinalarge most famous H erectus site shows some H erectus populations well adapted to temperate cold environments16 mya in Sangiranthe first discovery of H erectus from anywhere shows dispersal out of AfricaCultural remains the current view is that much of the Zhoukoudian material likely accumulated from the activities of nowextinct giant hyenas that used cave as a den and less from early hominin use of the siteOther Chinese sitesFrom the Latian sites the cranial remains of two adult H erectus females have been found in association with firetreated pebbles and flakes as well as ash
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