ANTA01 textbook notes for the entire year

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 Chapter 1 The Nature of Anthropology anthropology the study of humankind in all places and in all timesanthropologists are interested in all aspects of humanityanatomy physiology humanities etc The Development of Anthropology works of anthropological sig have considerable antiquity but not until the recently has anthropology become a distinct field Division of Anthropology within the Geological Survey of Canada was created in 1911 and the first lecturer was appointed in 1925 took so long bc of the limits of human technology at the time and geographical restrictionsit couldnt flourish until one could easily travel to observe different cultures and ppl it was with the encounter with hitherto unknown ppl which came as Europeans sought to extend their trade and political domination to all parts of the world that focuses attention on human differencesanother reason for the slow deve of anthropology was that it took a long time for Europeans to look past the differences and see the shared basic humanity with ppl everywhereBiography Father Joseph Francois Lafitau and Sir Daniel Wilson thth anthropological studies in Canada began in the 18 and 19 centuriesFather Lafitau was a Jesuit missionary who lived with the Iroquois whose firsthand observations provided valuable insight into their lives credited with discovering wild ginseng in NASir Daniel Wilson was the first professor of English lit at U of T and later was its first prezhe recognized the importance of cultural studies and founded the first anthro courses at a Canadian UniCanadian Anthropology three main influences in the deve of Canadian anthromuseums academic departments and applied research the National Museum of Canada in Ottawa played a major role in the direction of early Canadian anthro where many scientists conducted studies and research into aboriginal backgroundthey were also advocates of aboriginal rights and this advocacy has remained an imp part of Canadian anthro there were no professional archaeologists in Canada in the mid 1800s but these key events influenced the field herethe collections in the Danish National Museum were organized into stone bronze and iron agesgeological principles in the 1830s had been elucidated Darwin published On the Origin of Speciesthe founding if the Smithsonian and the Canadian Institute whom Daniel Wilson joinedthe creation of the Division of Anthropology within the Geological Survey of Canada in 1911 U of T than became the next centre of anthro in 1925 Thomas F McIlwraith became lecturer of anthro at U of T where he est the first academic department of anthroafter WWII more were est at other univserities most anthro departments were created in the 1960s and 70s and most archaeologists were hired from abroad where as biological anthropologists were often Canadian born the formal study of biological anthropology was started in NA by Ales Hrdlicka at the Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonianhe was the first to hypothesis that aboriginal ppl came from Asia the field was mainly descriptive through the 1930s and scholars were more concerned with reinforcing the concept of human races 1940s pop studies developed and scientists became interested in the envir influences on biological variation 1950s primate field studies blossomed1962 molecular anthro began JCB Grant was the first physical anthropologist in Canada taught James Anderson who became the first biological anthropologist in the department of anthro at U of T Anthropology and the Other Sciences anthropologists look for the broad basis of human ideas and practices without limiting themselves to any single social or biological aspect so that they have a broad and inclusive view of the human being it welcomes contributions from other sciences The Discipline of Anthropology biological anthropology the systematic study of humans as biological organisms archaeology the study of material remains and cultural features usually from the past to describe and explain human behaviour sociocultural anthropology the branch of anthro that focuses on humans as a culture making species applied anthropology applying the knowledge and methods of anthro to solve practical problems linguistic anthropology the study of human languages of the past and present as a means for ppl to relate to each other and to develop and communicate ideasall of these are closely relatedBiological Anthropology subfield of palaeoanthropology studies fossil remains of our ancestors in an attempt to reconstruct the course of human biological evolution primatology the study of the biological and social nature of our closest relatives prosimians monkeys and apesie Jane Goodall biological anthropologists analyze fossils and observe living primates to reconstruct the ancestry of the human species skeletal biology is the analysis and interpretation of human bones generally from archaeological siteshelps to understand issues such as age and sex structure of a pop health and diet issues etc forensic anthropology a field of applied biological anthropology and archaeology that specialized in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes biological anthropologists study present day human variation and apply all the techniques of modern molecular biology to achieve fuller understandings of human variationForensic Anthropology forensic anthropologists are specialists in human osteology and archaeologyits legal aspect is what separates it from other fields of biological anthro the connection with anthro came from the expertise biological anthropologists esp osteologists can bring to an investigation these anthropologists helped identify bodies after 911 they try to answer these questions is this a human skeleton how many indiv are representedwas a crime committed in the death of this indiv can a biological identity be estcan a personal identity be est in Canada forensic anthropologists do not determine race from skeletal remains and instead look at ancestry in the US they determine race which is difficult bc race is really a sociocultural concept BOXOwen Beattie a Canadian forensic anthropologist has performed over 100 forensic investigationshe teaches forensic and biological anthro at the uni of Albertahelped exhume and study the bodies of the Rwandan massacremost famous for his work on the 1845 Franklin expedition Archaeology study of material remains and cultural features in order to describe and explain human behaviour primary goal is to explain past human behaviour classical archaeology is interested in Greek and Roman history which are rarely studied by anthropologistspractitioners of fine art history medieval studies and egyptoplogy use archaeological methods but are not found in anthro departments traditionally archaeologists have focused on ppl who lived before us and for material products and traces of human practices different concentrations of chemicals and materials in the pieces they find indicate their uses prehistoric archaeologists can find out about human behaviour in the distant past by their dependence on written recordsin Canada precontact is used instead of prehistoric when referring to First Nations inuit and metis cultures to avoid the suggestion that they did not have a history before the Europeans arrived historic archaeologists study those cultures with historic documents available in order to supplement the material remains of ppl left behind archaeological remains can tell a lot about a cultural group that is not apparent from written records ie most ppl who could write 100s of years ago would only have been elites of society also look at material objects of contemporary settings such as the U of Arizonas Garbage Project which generates info about contemporary social issueshas shown that ideas about human behaviour based on conventional interview survey techniques can be flawed since ppl often are not honestwhen asked in a questionnaire how many cans of beer they consumed a week ppl said 8 but garbage showed they drank much morealso found through the excavation of landfills that biodegradable materials take longer to decay when buried under landfills than expectedvital info to solve our waste disposal prob look at artifacts to learn about the ppl who used them most archaeologists that study nonliterate and some literate cultures are appointed to anthro departments as well as classics and egyptology departmentsoutside NA anthro is usually physicial or biological the affiliation with archaeology is unusual from a
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