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Midterm CHPT 3LEC 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Midterm Exam Review: Chapter 3, Lecture 02 Continued Genetics Gregor Mendal (1822-1884)  breeding experiment with pea plants, traits in offspring are not solely passed by either parent , each trait individual posses two genes one from each parent  defn ( allele. Homo, hetero, dominant, recessive) 1. Principle of segregation (Mendels first principle of inheritance) Genes (alleles) occur in pairs. During gamete production, the members of each gene pair separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited. Relates to meiosis  2. Principle of independent assortment: The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair. The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another 3. Mendelian traits: Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples include many blood types, such as ABO. Many genetic disorders, including sickle-cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease, are also Mendelian traits, one locus Independent Assortment  During reproduction each individual create a gamete (egg/sperm) which consist of hall of your genes (meiosis)  can’t predict dominant genes dnt have any dominance ; 50/50  ex. of simple traits, eye color, tongue curling, thumb dominance, Darwin tubercle, ear wax color  genotype; all the genes in an individual  phenotype; expression of genetic dominance + physical changes caused by events  defn (genome, co-dominance, gene complexes, genotype, phenotype) DNA and Genes  double helix, genetic code made up of 4 bases, group of three bases gives a codon
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