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Midterm Study Guide

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Victor Barac

ANTA02H3Y INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY: Society, Culture and Language Instructor: Dr. Victor Barac ANTHROPOLOGY: Overview 1. Key Concepts 2. Five SubFields Of Anthropology 1. Biological anthropology 2. Archaeology 3. Linguistics 4. Cultural anthropology 5. Applied anthropology Key Concepts 1. Holism big background Perspective (best way to approach humanity is to look at how things interact with culture and society and what does it mean?) 2. Fieldwork microscopic focus (one subjectphenomenon) Involved in data gathering (primary information) 3. Comparison compare data Macroscopic focus, patterns between all fieldwork accounts, gives geographic range, gives temporal (time) depth 4. Cultural relativism & ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism = bias (favour of one culture); normal Cultural relativism = suspend moral judgments (understand cultures on their own terms), respect other cultures 5. Scientific anthropology [nomothetic] law-like patterns Physical sciences 6. Interpretive anthropology [reflexive; postmodern] no universal validity of science History and theology and criticism than scientific, emphasize cultural relativism (competing religionsdiscourses) 7. Basic (pursuit of academic knowledge) vs. applied research (practical outcome) The SubFields of Anthropology 1. Biological Anthropology 2. Archaeology 3. Linguistics 4. Cultural Social Anthropology 5. Applied Anthropology Biological Anthropology 1. Paleoanthropology 2. Primatology www.notesolution.com3. Contemporary human variation Paleoanthropology = the study of the human fossil recordremains (skeleton, teeth, skull) Requires knowledge of human primate Gives largest scale of humans (hundred of years) Sahelanthropous tchadensis (oldest skull) Australopithecus afarensis Evolutionary timelines o Tries to come up with evolutionary timelines (they are always changing with data) Primatology = looks at living primates (non-human) Includes apes, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Extension of biology of primates Comparative anatomy Reproductive behaviour Subsistence (where people get their food and how they feed) & locomotion Human Variation = involves defining and measuring body parts, skinhair colour, discrete traits (ear lobes), etc. Anthropometry Historical reconstruction Genetics & physiology Archaeology = looks at human material culture (human artifacts), what humans constructedmade Can look at tools, pottery, art, garbage dumps 1. Prehistoric = oldest tools Homo habilis Oldowan tools = first tool-building 2. Historical (glamorous) involves Greek civilizations Gates of Shalmaneser 3. Experimental = engage in experiments The Garbage Project Anthropological Linguistics Linguistics is most important culture to Homosapiens About 7000 languages out there 1. Descriptive 2. Historical 3. Ethnolinguistics 4. Sociolinguistics Descriptive Linguistics Arises from observation that there is so many languages Differences based on sound
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