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Anta02 Midterm Review Sheet

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Sandra Bamford

Review Sheet November 7, 2013 6:13 PM Anthropology: Study of humankind; study of human beings, past and present. Culture Shock: - Disorientation/panicthat develops in people living in an unfamiliar society. Archaeology: - Concerned with social process, how societyhas changed through time. Reconstruction and analysis of past cultures. Cultural Relativism(Boas): - Understanding another culture in its own terms, so that it appears to be coherent and meaningful. PhysicalAnthropology: - How human beings evolvedthrough time. The physical properties of human beings, how we are similar to our closest living ancestors. What makes us different from other organisms. Culture: - Shared, learned, accumulated experience. Patterns of behaviour characteristics of a given society,social patterns. The knowledge, belief, morals and other capabilities and habits acquired by human beings as a member of a given society. Cultural Anthropology: - Comparativestudy of cultures and societies. Holistic:- Belief that the parts of something are intimately interconnectedand explicable only by reference to the whole. Concerned with wholes rather than analysis or separation into parts. Linguistics:- The study of human languages. Examines language changes through time and how they are related to their cultural setting. Universal features of language, reflecting worldview.Speech reflects social relations. Comparative: - Analyzing data about different cultures to learn and explain patterns of similarity and difference. Method and Scope: - Social anthropology,Malinowski Relativism:- The belief that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, historical context, and are not absolute. Ethnocentrism: - To view other people's behaviour in terms of our own cultural categories. The belief that one's own way of life is natural and correct, and is the only way. Ethnography: - The description of a culture, based on participation observation. Ethnology: - Comparativeanalysis of cultural patterns to explain differences and similarities among societies. Participant Observation: - Living as closely as possible with the people whose culture the anthropologist is interested in studying and participating in their lives as much as possible. Emic - Insider perspective, Native's own perceptions Etic - Outsider perspective,Researcher's perspective. Social Evolution: - How societies and cultures have changed over time. Unilineal: - Different cultural forms are not randomly different. Cultures are at different stages of social evolutionthrough which every human society had either passed, or would pass in the future. "Survivals": - the primitive societiesthat have not yet reached the apex of social evolution Morgan - 1877 - Ancient Societies. Talking about kinship and barbarism. Seven distinct stages. Lower Savagery, Middle Savagery, Upper Savagery, Lower Barbarism, Middle Barbarism, Upper Barbarism. Civilization. Comparative Method - Taking bits and pieces of social life around the world and comparing them to one another. Savagery: - Random mating/primitivepromiscuity. Impossible to tell who biological parents are. Barbarism: - Kinship ties traced through one sex only, first women, then men. Civilization:- Monogamousmarriage. Malinowski: - Father of modern fieldwork. Functionalism. Worked on the Trobriand Islands for two Malinowski: - Father of modern fieldwork. Functionalism. Worked on the Trobriand Islands for two years. "The final goal of (social anthropology)is to grasp the natives' point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of the world." Boas: - Inuits, North American cultural anthropologist,Museum collections;Boas opined that like artifacts (spears) should be grouped based on the society/culturethey were taken from rather than just physical basis. Consanguinity: - Being from the same kinship as another person. Descended from the same ancestor as another person. Cognatic: - Mode of descent in which ancestry is traced through the matrilineal or patrilineal line. Trobriand Islands: - Marriage is recognized when a man and a woman eat together. They believe pregnancy is caused when an ancestral spirit enters her body. Belief in magic spells, can be bartered and taught. Deny that sex causes pregnancy. Pater: - Legal father Lineage: - Descent group whose membersdescend from an ancestor or ancestress by known genealogical links. Genitor: - Biological father Clan: - Descent group whose genealogical links are not known or remembered. Mater: - Legal mother Double Descent: - Uses two unilineal principals of inheritance Genetrix: - Biological mother Yako - Nigeria:- Immovableproperty is inherited through men, Movableproperty is inherited through females. Affine: - Relative by marriage Ancestor-focused: - Looking at kinship from the perspectiveof des
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