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Michael Schillaci

Chapter 1: Intro to Evolutionary Anthropology 5 Research Disciplines  Primatology—non human primates o Descriptions of primate anatomy thru field studies of wild animals o Primate psychology  Paleoanthropology—non human and human primates o Variations in human cultural activities, behaviour (moving across landscape)  Human Variation o Spatial and temporal variations in human features (skin pigmentation, skeletal, dental)  Medical Anthropology o Effects of social, environmental and biological factors on human health and illness (poor nutrition, breastfeeding)  Forensic Anthropology o Focus on skeletal remains of humans (determine age, sex, trauma, etc.) How Anthropologists Conduct Research  Descriptive: collecting data of the subjects (non-causal relationships—tail length, color)  Causal: one thing that causes change to another (tail length due to locomotion?)  Applied research: determining the mean by which a need can be met Evolutionary Concepts  Carl Linnaeus o Taxonomy: classify plants & animals in groups of similarities/differences o Binomial nomenclature: way of naming with two names  Georges-Louis Leclerc o Biogeography: geographical distribution of organisms; species change and evolve when they move from birthplace  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck o Soft inheritance: organisms lose useless traits and develop and pass on useful traits to their offspring  Georges Cuvier o Catastrophism: species can become extinct (against fixity)  James Hutton & Lyell o Uniformitarianism: processes in earth in the past is still the same in present Darwin’s Theory  1-the population’s ability to expand is infinite but the environment’s ability to sustain that population is finite (a struggle for existence)  2-there are variations in individuals; this variation affects the individual’s ability to survive and reproduce (ex: short/tall stature)  3-this variation is transmitted from parents to offspring Gregor Mendel  Father of genetics; pea plants; mechanisms of heredity Chapter 2: Microevolution and Evolutionary Anthropology Inheritance and Biological Evolution  Chromosomes: molecules containing genes; inside nucleus  Mitosis: division of non-sex cells; results in diploid daughter cells  Meiosis: division of sex cells to create ½ DNA as parent cell; results in haploid daughter cells  Gamete: sex cell  Recombination: where 2 chromosomes exchange genetic material during gamete formation DNA  What chromosomes are made up of  Double-helix shape  Composed of 4 nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine; G always combines with C and A always combines with T  Nucleotide: made of 1 sugar, 1 phosphate, 1 base Protein Formation  RNA: single-stranded nucleic acid  Transcription: copying of genetic information from DNA into RNA  Translation: RNA translated into protein Mutation  Change in an organism’s DNA; error or change in a nucleotide sequence  Result of 4 things: copying errors during cell division, exposure to radiation, mutagens or viruses  Random process  Ultimate source of new genetic materials in populations  Somatic cell mutation: changes to nucleotide sequence of genetic material in the body except those in sperm/egg; cannot pass from 1 generation to next  Germ cell mutation: changes to nucleotide sequence of genetic material in sex cells; involve heritable materials; can be passed onto descendants Genetic Drift  Random changes in gene pool over time  Outcomes o 1-reduces within-population genetic variation o 2-more likely to affect small populations o 3-increases between-population genetic variation  2 forms of genetic drift associated with small populations o Founder effect: when a new sub-population is comprised of only a subset of that populationgenetic variation decreases and decreases o Bottleneck: starts with a large population and an event decreases that population drastically then later the population increases again but the gene-variation is still much reduced Gene Flow  Movement of genes between populations  Non-random process  Outcomes o 1-initially, increases within-population genetic variation o 2-eventually, decreases between-population genetic variation Natural Selection  Selects for specific physical features; does not create variation  Non-random process  Acts only on existing variationcan increase or decrease variations within & b/w populations Fitness  Selection for heritable traits  Two properties o 1-involves success of biological entity in producing offspring o 2-represents average contribution of allele or genotype to succeeding generations  Individuals with the same genotype have different reproductive success if their environments have different selective pressures Three Modes of Natural Selection  Directional o favouring either higher or lower values of character; increases variation o distribution is same; average is shifted  Stabilizing o Selecting for the average—extreme values of a character are selected against; reduces variation o Distribution is changed; average stays same  Disruptive o Both extremes of trait are favoured; increases variation Natural Selection & Biological Evolution  Natural selection: responsible for heritable differences becoming more common or rare in a pop  Biological Evolution: process that starts with genetic variation by recombination or mutation  Not necessarily the same thing; biological evolution can occur without natural selection Adaptation  Not a requirement for species survival  Process: change in beak size & Feature: the beak size Two Misconceptions on Natural Selection and Adaptation 1. There is no perfect design for any biological entity b/c the environment is always changing 2. Natural selection and adaptation have no gal; there is no finish line for the evolutionary process Chapter 3: Macroevolution and Evolutionary Anthropology Early Species Concept  Typological species concept (Linnaeus’ taxonomy): similar looking individuals put into categories  Modified typological species concept: similar looking individuals that can reproduce put into categories  3 reasons why Modified typological species concept no longer favoured o 1-fails to account for geographic variations within species o 2-leads to conclusions that males of the same species are separate species o 3-cannot account for when distinct species mate and produce a fertile hybrid Modern Species Concepts  Biological Species Concept: organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring; reproductively isolated o Ex: horse + donkey=mule; mules cannot reproduce so they’re put in the non- reproducing species category o Doesn’t work for fossil species b/c we don’t have the entire species; just the jaw maybe  Phylogenetic Species concept o Using cladistics Speciation  Allopatric Speciation: species formation occurring from geographic isolation of populations; physical barrier causes geographic isolation and reduces gene flow b/w populations  2 forms o Vicariant: physical barrier creates large, geographically separated populations; major split o Peripatric: small, peripherally isolated colony of main population diverges to become new species  In both models, species can become sympatric (overlapping) if the physical barrier no longer exists, the niche expands into the original range of the parent population, or a species disperses around the physical barrier 3 Assumptions of Cladistics 1. There are changes in characteristics within lineages over time 2. All organisms are descended from a common ancestor 3. When a linage splits, it divide into exactly two groups 3 Misconceptions about Cladograms 1. Evolution produces patterns of relationships among organisms that are like a tree and not like a ladder—cladograms do not represent advancement 2. Don’t assume that those taxa on the top are more advanced than those on the bottom 3. Avoid reading across the terminal nodes; must look at the internal branching patterns Evolutionary Processes of Speciation  Evolutionary Radiations: rapid formation of a new species within a geological time period  Phyletic Gradualism: steady transformation of a whole species into a new one  Punctuated Equilibrium: rare, geologically rapid events of branching speciation Chapter 4: Living Primates Primates  Diverse order o Diversity in diet o Diversity in social organization o Diversity in daily activity patterns Primate Taxonomy  Grasping hands and feet, collarbone, radius and ulna, forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision, opposable big toe or thumb, flat nail, reduced olfactory apparatus, large brain, postorbital bar Strepsirhine Characteristics  Dental tooth comb: lower incisors grouped together used as grooming device  Moist rhinarium: wet noseenhanced sense of smell  Unfused mandibular and frontal symphases: jaw divided into left and right  Tapetum lucidum: can see at night  Postorbital bar  Two superfamilies: Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea Lemuroidea  Madagascar and Comoro Islands  Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial  Many small-bodied species are nocturnal  Female dominance  Varied diet: leaves, fruit, insects Lorisoidea  Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia  Lorises and galagos  Arboreal quadrupeds  Nocturnal  Varied diet Haplorhine Characteristics  Dry nose  Retina fovea: reduced night vision but improved visual acuity  Postorbital closure  Fused mandibular and frontal symphases: just one jaw  Three infraorders: Tarsiiformes, Platyrrhini, and Catarrhini Tarsiiformes  Southeast Asia  Small body size of all living primates  Large eyes, with fused lower leg bones  Long tail, dry nose  Entirely faunivorous: insects, snakes, lizards Platyrrhines  Central and South America  Prehensile tail in few species  Most entirely arboreal  Fruits, flowers, leaves, insects  Cebidae, Atelidae, and Callitrichidae Catarrhini  Africa, Asia, and Southeast Asia  Variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptations  Have ischial callosities (sitting pads)  Diurnal  Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, and Hominidae New World Monkeys vs. Old World Monkeys  New world monkeys (Platyrrhines) o Dentition: 2:1:3:3 o Prehensile tails (some) o Tympanic ring fused to auditory bulla (no tube) o Parietal bone meets the zygomatic bone  Old world monkeys and apes (Catarrhines) o Dentition: 2:1:2:3 o Non-prehensile tails o Tympanic tube o Parietal bone DOES NOT meet the zygomatic bone Body Size  Area and volume change at different rates  Animal that doubles in size will be eight times heavier  Small animals have greater heat (energy) loss than larger animals Primate Habitats  Tropical rainforests (hot, humid), dry forests, deserts, and savannas  Primary forests: old growth, dense canopy, leaf litter on ground o intact, natural forest o abundance of mature trees; not modified by human activities or natural disturbances  Secondary forests: lot of plant growth, sunlight o What regrows after a disturbance o Denser, shorter vegetation o Discontinuous canopylets in more light, greater abundance of fruits and leaves  Ecological niche: interactions b/w an organism and its environment  Forest microhabitats: o Emergent layer: very top of the canopy (more fruit); dangerous place for small primates to be o Canopy: fruit and leaf eating primates o Understorey: below canopy; large, mature trees; few food resources Primate Evolutionary Ecology  Bottom-up processes: interactions b/w organisms involving physical/chemical factors (temperature, nutrient availability); resource driven (insects, fruits, leaves)  Top-down processes: consumer driven (influence of predators)  Predation pressures on primates (loud calls, living in groups) Primate Ranging Patterns  Daily path length: distance travelled in a day  Day range: 2-D area used by primate during day  Home range: area used for a period of months or years  Core area: most frequently used area of the home range  Territory: defending area Primate sociality  Deception, female mate choice, kin recognition, warfare, friendship  Contributes to the evolution of larger brains Primate Social Grooming  More about establishing and maintain social bonds than hygiene  Also used to reconcile conflict  Increases sexual behaviours Why Primates live in Groups  Advantages o Improved predator protection o Improved access to food o Resource defence o Increased access to potential mates
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