Antb14 chapter outlines

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Maureen Murney

Chapter1:AdaptationbyNaturalSelection 1.WhatIsAdaptation? Components of an organism that help it survive and reproduce. The human eye is an example of a complex adaptation. Before Darwin, adaptation was explained as the work of a heavenly designer. 2.DarwinsTheoryofAdaptation After medical school, Darwin spent time on the H.M.S. Beagle charting the coast of South America and studying the flora and fauna there. Darwin returned to London and developed three postulates of adaptation: Population increases infinitely, but the environment is finite. Organisms vary, and variation affects survival. Variation is heritable. Galpagos finches Peter and Rosemary Grant of Princeton University studied the finches for years. Drought struck Daphne Major in the late 1970s, and plant life dwindled. Large, hard seeds and beak-size variation contributed to adaptation. Finches with deeper beaks survived in larger numbers than those with smaller beaks (Fig. 1.9). Beak depth was passed on to new generations (Fig. 1.10), causing a 4% increase in average beak depth in the finch population. The Grantss long-term research shows stabilizing selection and equilibrium in beak size (Fig 1.13). Individual versus species Darwin put forward that a species is dynamica population made up of individuals. Selection creates adaptations that are beneficial to the individual, not necessarily to the population or species. 3.WhatAreComplexAdaptations? Continuous variation is important for complex adaptations. Complex adaptations are the result of small, random variations. Complex adaptations require all intermediate steps to be useful. Example: Human eye (Fig. 1.15) Convergent evolution occurs when a similar adaptation occurs in unrelated groups of animals. Examples: Eyes, marsupials 4.HowFastDoesEvolutionOccur? Change can occur rapidly. Examples include: Beak morphology of Galpagos finches Body size of Jersey elk Dog breeds Eye Nilsson and Pelger of Lund University simulated the evolution of the eye in fish and found that this complex structure could evolve in less than a million years. 5.ProblemsDarwinCouldNotSolve Blending inheritance would eliminate variation by making each individual the average of its parents. Natural selection would also eliminate variation by removing variants from populations. How can new traits be introduced to a population? Chapter5:PrimateDiversityandEcology 1.WhyStudyPrimates? Studying the behavior of primates gives us insight into our ancestors behavior, also known as reasoning by homology. Studying the diversity of organisms allows us to see how adaptation works under different selective pressures, also known as reasoning by analogy. 2.WhatArePrimates? Primates are our closest relatives and comprise an extremely diverse order. Characteristics that define the primate order include: Opposable big toe and prehensile hands Nails instead of claws; fingerprints Hind-limb locomotion Unspecialized nose Highly developed vision Small litters of young with slow gestation and maturation periods Large brain Unspecialized molars and unique dental pattern 3.WhereDoPrimatesLive? Mainly in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa, South America, Mexico, and Central America. 4.PrimateTaxonomy Prosimians Many are nocturnal and have developed adaptations for life in the dark. This suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. Anthropoids Larger than prosimians, they are normally active in the day, rely on vision rather than smell, and live in social groups. This suborder includes New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and humans. 5.PrimateEcology An animals energy requirements depend on: Basal metabolism Active metabolism Growth rate Reproductive effort Primates require protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils, vitamins and minerals, and water, which they get from a variety of sources. Four general types of primate diets are frugivore, folivore, insectivore, and gummivore. Each are affected by primate dental patterns, dental morphology, and gut morphology (Figure 5.18). Primate activity is regularly patterned and can be graphically depicted as having a time budget (Figure 5.20). Primate groups have relatively fixed ranges in which they live and move. These home ranges include access to food and resting places and are often defended by territorial behavior. Primates need to be concerned about predation, and some have developed antipredator strategies.
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