2. Fatal: Pre, during, and post.
3. There should be gene for resistance.
Malaria selects for heterozygotes (HbAHbS)
Factors: Plasmodium – Mosquitoes – Human – Plasmodium – Mosquitos - Human
Four types of Plasmodium:
Vivax: Globallyand most frequent. It's seldom fatal.
Falciparum: The most virulent and fatal. Children are most susceptible.
◦ Responsible for 1-3M deaths/year.
◦ 25% infant deaths inAfrica.
◦ 30 mosquito species.
◦ 80% infection rate of red blood cells.
◦ Cause other forms of malaria.
Ovale: Least common, typicallyAfrica.
Reduced Maternal Fitness
Maternal and infant mortality.
Reduced birth weight due to anemia.
Associated with preterm deliveries and abortions.
Bites an individual with malaria, then bites individual with no malaria.
The cycle is typically between people and mosquitoes (although can also be with apes and
1. Parasites reproduce in the liver
2. Cycles the body.
3. Produces gametocytes.
4. Sucked up.
5. Oocytes develop in mosquitoes tummy, into sporozoites.
6. Transmits to human body by biting (saliva).
Red Blood Cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs (via arteries and capillaries). Lung is high O2 pressure;
Carry CO2 back to the lungs, release O2 and CO2 is dumped. The r