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Key Concepts for Midterm

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Donna Young

1. Culture: knowledge that is learned, shared, n used by ppl to interpret experience n generate behaviour 2. ethnography: process of discovering n describing a particular culture 3. Edward Tylor: (1832- 1917): o Culture that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, n any other capabilities n habits acquired by man as a member of sociarty (1871) 4. Ethnocentrism: belief n feeling that ones own culture is best 5. Pre-modern era: World thought of metaphysical hierarchy - Reliance on tradition as a source of authority o Ex: Christianity - View of humanity as being center of universe o Ex: sun arnd the world - This is the concept of gr8 chain of being - Impo: idea that ur born into unchanging set of relationships - Concept of class mobility wudnt make sense - These relationships r organic n static 6. great chain of being: way of thinking abt ppl in a way that everything established by God or nature belonged somewhere - provided a model - used ideal or race 2 justify slavery th 7. modern era: Modern era (more was in 16 century) a. Copernicus (1473- 1543) b. Galileo (1564- 1642) c. Descartes (1596- 1650) - Major ideological changes o Shifting power relations - Ex: Roman Catholic Church decreased in authority (by a lot) - Copernicus: Earth revolves arnd the sun - Galileo: jailed by Catholic church, church apologized 1992 - Descartes: I think, therefore I am o If u can wonder whether or not u exist o Concept marks a radical turn to the self - If we relive on own perceptions of the world rather than sum authority like church, wut emerges is a concept of self-contaminated isolated person who can b independent of the world but can observe the world n deduce how it works - Characteristics: o Notion that we no ourselves thru cognitive n reflexive activity o World constructed as composed of objects that can b known Ex: world is sum kind of break machine [fundamental concepts] - All of this lead to 18 century enlightenment in Western philosophy - This period was characterized by faiths over what we no n how we no it
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