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Donna Young

ANTB19 FINAL EXAM ESSAY 1.) THESIS: COLONIALISM DISRUPTS NOTIONS OF TIME AND SPACE As the 19 th century ended, administrative and bureaucratic interventions disrupted the lives of people across the world. People were being reconstituted as subjects while nation states were emerging and empires were breaking up. Colonialism came to play a role in disruption of the notions of time and space. These disruptions were seen in various forms through different ideologies and time across the world. First was through racist ideologies, which led to terror and discrimination. This was prominent during the birth of the ideology of manifest destiny. Second was through the ethno-nationalist exclusions orchestrated by emerging states and empires. A perfect example of this was the policy by the Anglo-Egyptian government of Sudan to ‘divide and rule’ the Sudan’s ethnic and tribal groups, including The Nuer tribe. Lastly, colonialism disrupted time and space through the modern warfare and ideology of ethnic cleansing. Sadly, this is still prominent during the modern times as it can be seen through the notion of Zionism in Palestine. Colonialism disrupts the notions of time and space. This could be seen through racist ideologies that led to terror and discrimination. One of the racist ideologies was manifest destiny. Manifest destiny was the notion of God’s will that Europeans settle the west because of the idea that Europeans were superior to primitive races. This notion was linked to the ideologies of social evolution and progress, which were still very strong at the time. This was the reason why the racist notion that inferior races meant to die out or be ruled as subjects was strongly implemented. A perfect example of the disruption of time and space that colonialism brought to people was seen in Ishi, the last Yahi remaining. Ishi’s tribe was the Yahi. Their way of living involved hunting buffalo. However, this was slowly replaced by deer and cattle. As the Europeans started colonizing North America, the Yahi was perceived as trespassing in private properties of the settlers while hunting. Hunting was the only way of life the Yahi knew. Indians, including Yahi, were either killed off or pushed away from their land and to the west. Ishi was one of the few who escaped but the only one who stayed behind and hid from 1 ANTB19 FINAL EXAM ESSAY the settlers. The disruption of notions of time and space by colonialism could be seen in Ishi. Ishi’s family and tribe were killed. His way of life was disrupted as he was forced into hiding. When Kroeber, an anthropologist found him, he was moved to America to be studied in a museum. He could no longer hunt or build hunts like he used to. He could not communicated with anyone as no one could speak Ishi’s language fluently. Ishi’s life was disrupted and destroyed because of colonialism. The second ideology was the ethno-nationalist exclusions, which were orchestrated by emerging states and empires. A perfect example of this was the policy by the Anglo-Egyptian government of Sudan to ‘divide and rule’. This ‘divide and rule
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