What is Globalization? Final Exam Review
The imagination is way to connect people at different parts of the world.
Scapes help us look at how different forces are intersecting and coming
together in different ways.
The local and global are interconnected
Global becomes imagined when we create something that seems to be
Global is always here right now, happening in various scapes
Technoscape: ways in which technology create or removes barrier or
facilitates forms of communications. Passing of ideas, films
Financescapes: ability to move money around. Ability to outsource jobs around
to less developed countries
Ethnoscapes: ability to migrate and send back remittances, which is the main
sources of gdp for the country
Ideascape: People’s movements are being set according to cultural
stereotypes or ideas about what that means. (Idea of a good mother is staying
at home and not migrating to the west but doing so could mean you’re a good
mother or bad mother)
Don’t speak about the local or global as two different things, speak about scapes and
what the imagination does in bringing these things together.
Orientalism: study of how certain texts or literature or paintings represented the other as
exotic or essentializing, most importantly though orientalism is about how
How power operates: how certain forms of power have the authority to
represent other people on their behalf
Looking at people as how they are expressed, even anthropologists and how
they imagine the other.
Producing certain bodies of knowledge that make us the West and them the
Orientalism or Occidentalism it is dangerous because it creates a single
narrative that removes all complexity from the story.
**Be able to talk about theories of power, not in the assigned
readings, ideas of power (for an A in tests)***
Power, PoliticsHow does it operate?
Neoliberalism is not just about the free market and not just about the removal or trade
barriers but it is ideological
Comes with certain assumptions and promises about change, what to expect from
development. These fantasies are a way for the third world to think that they can now catch up with the
rest of the first world. That people in developing countries now have these expectations
of the promises the individuals are now free to engage in business and entrepreneurship
and the idea that you are now able to consume and get what you want.
Neoliberal subject: means that many times these fantasies are turned into nightmares.
Steve Gegory’s book “Devil Behind the Mirror”: talks about the nightmare
case of globalization.
The fantasy of globalization is about things like: freedom, ideas like choosing, (choosing
who you get to marry and who to date) choosing as an individual who is unaffected by
restrictions, the ability to migrate and move, the ability to seek out better jobs and better
These assumptions can turn into nightmares when you build up your
expectations and when they are not fulfilled.
Fantasies can turn into nightmares or fantasies can turn into ‘a cruel optimism’ (this
means you’re optimistic but it’s cruel because you do not get what is really offered)
Devil Behind the Mirror is about the frustrations of failed expectations and the promises
that only a few experience and the importance of the informal economy.
Struggles to create a better life and the division of labour, and social division
Gregory is looks at how people are judged: people are disciplined but also regulated, and
judged as immoral delinquents.
NationState and Citizenship
Understand the following: Idea of the imagined community, the idea of subjectification.
(Ong’s piece): process of becoming a certain kind of subject, this means that to be a
citizen means to be a certain kind of citizen, racialised cultural citizen.
Subjectification: selfmaking and beingmade by power relations that produce consent
through schemes of surveillance, discipline, control, and administration.
Ong looks at how migrants of different types of Asian migrants, from
refugees to more affluent middleclass Asian migrants in California, are treated
depending on household and services.
We have ideas of what is a good citizen you come and you work and save
towards a better life. Falling outside of this American dream brings judgment
She says also that race in America does matter
These ways of being disciplined or administered and controlled, being some kind of
subject, being “hailed”, which leads to the idea of interpellation.
Interpellation is way of being “hailed” by a certain kind of person (person
having the authority of power to make you stop in your tracks)
Ways of being a subject of power: through consent, it’s not always about dominating
power from above but that we become subjects through our own consent.
**Subjectification will be asked in one of the exam questions**
Theories around Power
Use theories for your essay! Power operates through consent; it is productive because it is not bound in the body of
king or queen it is diffused amongst all of us. We become the people who control
ourselves, we watch ourselves in order to stay in line as a result of being taught and
disciplined into certain ways of being.
We govern ourselves through knowledge, ideology.
The representation of ideology that we see, the cultural representation of the other, is
orientalism. Orientalism is part of the power of differences that people have to be able to
construct the knowledge that you need to know to understand these things.
Calling something by its name, distinguishing apart people, is part of being
constituted as subjects
Power is not topdown. People participate in their own Subjectification.
It can also be resisted or challenged in subtle ways or through more dramatic forms of
When thinking about power one must also think about different scales of power
Ong talks about the idea of neoslavery: shows how different scales of power are
operating at the same time.
Forces such as: nation state and other moral systems, like religion or moral
ways of thinking about how to live a good life or the NGO interventions that
work with market relations.
To think about power is to think about: sovereign power (the law, nationstate has
sovereign power), disciplinary power (institutional power, expert knowledge, looking to
reshape the way one conducts themselves in a space of regulated freedom. Freedom
within limits, the space once is in sets he relationship one has with other people. Being
within a government building, we need to know how to move within that space),
governmentality (ranges from the individual ways of controlling oneself to the larger
ways in which a government keeps track of who their population is).
**It is important to be aware of these ideas during the exam**
Theme: The Global Factory **Possible essay question**
Think carefully about how gender and labour can be linked to other themes like
Ideas of labour, the feminization of labour
**If professor asks question about gender and labour migration, you have possible
examples to use. Filipino workers, or example of sex workers
How bodies are disciplined, what kinds of subjects make better workers?
Migration and love, think about the ways in which these questions come together**
Politics of the Body **Section A Type of question**
How identities are socially constructed or also both in ways that are liberating.
Race and Culture
What is race doing?
New Technologies and Global Capitalism **Possible Essay Question**
Call centers What are call centers and what do they say about global capitalism?
Global capitalism empirically means the possibility of outsourcing labour in
developing countries and this ways bring