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Girish Daswani

AnthropologyCulture Politics and GlobalizationLecture 1January 10 2011Globalization as a concept refers both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness about the world as a wholeoGeneral assumptions around itdebates whether it is new Some common assumptions of GlobalizationoDissolving barriers like time and distance technological developments such as InternetoMakes political borders increasingly irrelevant increased movement and flows through global migrationtransnational capitaloHybridization of cultures and more mixingPeople are constantly moving around barriers between groups are breaking downoIntensification of connections and our increasing consciousness of this developmentoRise of the free market economy more neoliberal policies and less trade barriersMove towards privatization Inda and RosaldooThe development of worldwide modes of transport and communicationoAn intensification of the links modes of interaction and flows that interconnect the worldoA stretching of social cultural political and economic practices across frontiers so as to make possible action at a distanceoA heightened entanglement of the global and local Spacetime compression and stretching of social life across time and spaceoDavid Harveyglobalization involves the shrinking of space and the compression of timeLabour markets become more flexible through outsourcing subcontracting puttingout and homework strategiesThis flexibility is aimed at reducing the turnover time of capitaloAnthony Giddenscompares globalization to the stretching of social life across time and spaceRemote encounters win out over face to face interactionWays of being social are no longer the same Before in order to make transactions build relationships you need facetoface interactions but whats happening now is that these things dont matter as muchCan be in two different time zones to do businessGlobalist versus SkepticsoThe great globalization debate is between those who are skeptical the skeptics about the process and those who accept is as a reality the globalistIs Globalization Something New or Old NewoIt has been argued that there is something new to the present world that is to say the world beginning with the end of Cold war in 9801991oWith the dissolution of this conflict the world shifted from a twobloc system to a onebloc system The world appeared to become a single integrated market place free trade and neoliberal policiesoThe internet existed in its embryonic form from the late 60s and grew exponentially around 1990oThe physical latter became replaced by emails fixed phone line by wireless mobileoIn the 1960s the Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan coined term global village in speaking about new mass media situationoNew Media TV would create new common frames of references and mutual knowledge between people across the globe OldoIt has also been argued that globalization is not something new The historical depth of interconnections do not get looked at enough eg Patterns of migration trade financial movement and capital formationsoThe popularity of the term globalization signals a need for caution The word was scarcely used before the late 1980sbut today it seems you cannot run away from it in newspapers and academic circlesfuzzy termwhat does it meanoQuestions about the limits of global do not get asked Eg What are the structures and limits of these interconnecting mechanismsoThe world has always been a place where political and economic relationships are unevenoLong term implications of the exercise of power across time and spaceoThe death of the nationstate is exaggeratedoGlobalization is not necessarily creating common ways of being united or seeing the world as connected but brings about new differences and divisionsGlobalization promises finance flows Howeveranthropologist are also concerned with the collective the counterflows the immobility and the boundedness of people ideas and cultureWhat Gregory calls the nightmare face of globalizationThe Devil Behind the Mirror is a metaphor to illustrate the dissonance between what transnational capital promises and what it delivers as this tension is lived interpreted and acted upon in the everyday lives of working peopleoWe want to be included but we cant afford to Globalization is an uneven and awkward processoThere are people and places whose experience are marginal to or exluded from these movements and linksoThey sometimes become invisible when speaking about globalizationoAssuming world is becoming smaller place does not mean we are becoming more alikethat everyone is equalWe should pay attention to oImportance of historypower relations involvedoInvisibility of certain groups who are either not discussed in literature due to focus of attention on larger political and economic processes of globalizationoChanging cultural meanings people attach to changes in their livestheir ongoing interpretation and adaptationPeople cultures capital and commodities may be anchored in more than one place but they are still anchored in a limited number of specific placesoMeans that identity is still anchored in specific context and specific culturally shared spacesLecture TwoJanuary 17 2011Conceptualizing the GlobalQuestions for Todays lectureWhat happens then to those processes events aspirations and experiences that are not captures by a particular model and its derivativesPeople do not always share the notion of a shared culture that they are part of a larger ongoing processDoes the local have to be about something specific only or bounded or something that reproduces something called CultureOne way is to say that local is not something fixed it is not static oLocal groups or communities have never always been the same They are always have been subject to external and internal forcesAnthropologist from European countries would go to different parts of the world that they saw radically different from their own in order to understand the OtheroThey werent just explorers or missionaries they were meant to be social scientistsresearchers to understand the fact that questions of western civilization oWhy is it that other groups do not have civilizationoBy understanding them you can understand the western part this is what they thought beforeoOne conclusion about how other people are structured is kinship Weve come along way since thenrevolution of writingculture more flexible of anthropologist of thinking about themselves in relation to otheroCant think Others as different or backwardthey are the same as us oInstead we should follow the argument of rationalitywe all have minds we all thinkoWe have constructed the other in stereotypical waywe have created the ideaillusion that people have always been specificstatic group In conceptualizing the global we need to be perceptive of how people think of their construction of class ration nation gender same goes for globalizationConceptual framing for the pretheoretical assumptions that characterize the nature of the globaloAnthropologist and others all contribute to the conceptualization of the global Article Appadurai oTalking about new global culture that needs to be addressed and new theories need to be created to address the new world oHe is in favour of globalization He believes globalization is something newArticleFrederick cooperoHe is a historianoHis perspective is embedded within largerlonger historical frame and time lineoDoesnt say globalization is one more form of colonization we cannot go back into the past and say globalization started 5000 years agooBut the term itself is very fuzzywhat do we mean about globalizationArjun AppaduraioThe modern world is now an interactive system in a sense that is strikingly newoThe world today is described as involving interactions of a new order and intensizityoAppadurai reminds us that the world has experiences a new technological explosion that has far surpassed the advances of the past such as the print revolutionoThe world today is rhizomic no hierarchies or structures only layers upon layers of networks and entry pointsWhen we lump things into local and compare it to globalit gets very messy because something are local and globalAppadurais ideas have helped with clearing this messHe also mentions Benedict Andersons notion of imagined communities which are national identities that have been formed and brought together different local groupskinship identities through new technological forces in the world such as print capitalism and mass literacyoWe now have an imagined community that comes out of material change and technological advances that we havent had beforeoAlso creates ideas of other we are creating boundaries and identity that excludesThe creation of ethnicities British and national identities became more popular and helped in foraging new ideas of the other the paradox of constructed primordialism creeps inoWe are essentially these people ex essentially Canadian
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