ANTB21 detailed class notes for midterm.pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTB21H3
Professor
Alejandro Paz
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTB21 2013/9/3 INTRODUCTION: -­‐ Every time and everything you express out in language is about how you are and who you are. -­‐ What is language? n Discussions: u A way of communicating with other people u Thought into words u Way of sub-consciousness to consciousness u Put thinking into words u We have a long tradition of putting emotions into language u We have an insight that is separated with language? -­‐ Russell Peters on Cultural names n What is a cultural name? u Connect you to another place u Have certain religious meaning or cultural names l Representing someon’s identity u Even through you are here but your name link the connection to another place u It comes from the past but with meaning now; deep meanings u Italian names: u 1. Connect to something else; 2. Another deep meaning; 3. Social identity u What is opposite of cultural names? n n Indian name: u Names like Anit Patel PrabhjotàGod’s Essence u Have deep meaning long history u Wear it proudly like an emblem u Have cultures l i.e. ethnic difference n English regular name u Names like Russel Eric, Maureen u No meaning or history u Cannot really wear it proudly u No culture l i. e. ethnic differences n n Cultural names àe.g. Indian Names u Forms in the category l Anit Patel l Prabhjot l Jose u Non-English language class of names u Intuition: used for radicalized minorities in Nam u Explicit rationalization: have deep meaning long history , wear it proudly -­‐ Language Ideologies n Assignment for Coming Tutorial n That is what they do in theory, but it’s different in practice u We talk one thing and we act differently n Explicit explanation (theory) about language and how language works socially, which is related to, but doesn’t determine, the use of language (i.e. the practice”). That is, they don’t accurately represent how people use language. u See Ahearn PP 19-22 n Language authorities don’t actually reflect the reality. -­‐ Key & Peele on “Dialing it Up” n See blackboard course exampls n See blackboard course exampls n That is not a white sound … it is called speaking proper English n But there is actually no “Proper English” because the way are socialized, the cultural background” n They read it on the way you speak àyou don’t speak proper English in a Job interview -­‐ For the tutorial of week 2, write down an example of a language ideology that you find in your everyday life or from some product of popular culture. -­‐ Nothing more than a paragraph, and it doesn’t have to be formal. Bring it to tutorial and be ready to discuss it. It will not be marked, but you should hand it in at the end of tutorial -­‐ 2013/9/10 Anthropology B21 Week 2 ​ ​GreekyLecture -­‐ Oct 8 and Nov. 19 , 2013: everyone goes to 5PM tutorial -­‐ Course readings: LinkàFor everyweek -­‐ Take a copy of reading to tutorial What is Language? -­‐ Review of Last Lecture: -­‐ Help to communicate, help to identity our social identities; everyone has inner voice, things like what you want to say in you mind; we repeating, rep`roducing, reusing,… and many words from other context; we often using stuff that we experienced somewhere; there is interior us that is very essential to us, has .. we has been socialized to talk in a certain way; -­‐ Couple clips has been shown last lecture about Russell Peter: about the culture names, and some name may sounds like but some other name does not really sounds like culture names; -­‐ Power and institutions like university and classrooms: what is the “white way”/correct way of talking in Englishàbut it is not about race but more about the proper and former English talkingà that is the institutional power that the way you speaking is repeating and reflecting the powers -­‐ If asking a question: what is a language? Whatever it may be the answer but it would be very complicated -­‐ Replay: Russell Peter n “I like Indian names, I think Indian names has long histories and many deep meanings..” n He creates two classes of names: cultural names Vs. normal names n What is the thing that clamp all of these names together as so called as “Cutlural Names”; there is nothing in English language has that certain classifying Different Meanings of “mean” -­‐ The man in the audience answered Russell. n What does “man” mean? n Gender terms; the term of man; identify a gender -­‐ Anit Patel n What does “Anit Patel” mean? u Cultural Name? u This is the problem we are facing when we are classifying names; in order to figure this out, we have to think of the forms of language creating a sign What is a sign then? -­‐ A symbol or some types of forms has some meaning for people; n Ex: red light sign -­‐ How to cross Intersection 101 n A red light tells to stop while driving or a green light to go while driving; you are in urban and you are socialized to know this; at the same time it is very contextualizedàwhen you are in Ellesmere/Morningside and you don’t need to stop when the light of Kennedy and Steeles is red because you are not in the context; n New comers to Toronto, What is she pointing at when she is crossing the street with yellow flashing light? You are supposed to point when you are crossing since this is the custom has been practiced by all Torontonians n You have to be socialized into that context and society so that you are becoming or you have a sense that you are a group member of that society or group like Torontonian -­‐ The complexity of signs n Example: Uh.OH…. Greek Alert n We always have many vocabularies; language as a thing itself gives us an ability to refer to itself n Language is Unique by offering a … of referring to itself n Referring back the “man” meaning mentioned previously; -­‐ Signs àroughly n Sings are forms that have meaning for some group, and which can be used whie communicating n More technical definition: meaning is a process that involves three components: n More technical definition: meaning is a process that involves three components: u 1. SignsàWhat ever stands for something else u 2. Objectsà Whatever a sign stands for u 2. Interpretantsàwhatever a sign creates insofar as it stands for an object u -*****not required for exams -­‐ Linguistic Signs: n Form ​ ​Man n Function: refer to someone looks like a man; general fucntion ​ ​ ​ n Form 2: ​ ​Anit Patel n Function: in NAm, can be a “cultural” or ethnic name -­‐ More complicated: Multifunctionality n 1. You could as use the Anit Patel to refer to the guy who was sitting in the audience in the Peter’s clip’s n 2. Another things is the cultural and ethnic name n The previous two points are the multifunctions of the “Anit Patel” n “Whenever you choose to speak, you speak with your background, your audience, and environment you are in” Quick Break from Greekiness: Fairies; ppl speak differently not only just using differnet languges, but also with cultural names; Ferdinand de Saussure, 1857-1913: important for structuralism and post-structuralism; “signifier Vs Signified”; interested in understanding in very abstract sense; to understand the language to grab the context; his ideas were extremely misunderstood when he was writing that; Saussure’s Model of the Sign: a) Concept Vs. Sound Image b) Signified Vs. Signifer c) Tree Vs. Arbor -­‐ The Duality of the sign: n Sound-image Vs. Concept n Example he gave was n He did not give out the context of man; but a psychological reality is associated with the context; in linguistic, what we mean by man is not a picture of man carton, but something more complicated -­‐ There is nothing about the tree determines that sound of “arbor”; nobody will look at a tree will say “arbor”àwhy? Language changes across histories; there is nothing of the tree image determine how you would call it; and it is depending context and it could also be very precise n This is the Arbitrary of language n Or trees meaning different for different people with same languageàthat is a different issue from we are talking about here; n Another is Referential function of language: “the tree on the board” that everyone know what he is talking aboutàas the world has been already existing before we talk about it -­‐ Saussure’s Model of Communication n 1. Contextualized Utterances (Parole) n 2. Language Structure (Langue) n Process of 1 & 2. u Concept Vs. Sound-image u Refer to the slides about pictures *** u On Ahead’s article PP. 9-10 Charles Sanders Peirce, 1839-1904 -­‐ Contextual Meaning: n something about signs sometimes point out very clear direction; meaning of “here” is changing when it is using by other people; this is the deictic of language; whoever says “I” referring to different person; this is the example of highly contexualized language -­‐ Peirce’s three kinds of sign relations (sign & object) Ground: types of realtion between Sign & object Name of sign Resemblance Icon Contiguity (Points) Index Arbitrary (Neither)àpurely by convention Symbol The only example of symbols coming from language -­‐ Language of specialty, and to isolate this you need to do this. Peirce figured this out, and classified everything into three things (the pointing relationships) -­‐ Linguistic Signs: repeating example of “Man” Vs. “Anit Patel” Form Man/dude/guy Anit Patel Function A man image Symbol In NAm, can be a “cultural or ethnic name this is an indexical meanings Review: Indexicality “all the way down” -­‐ We learn language through indexicality -­‐ Indexicality is inherently contextualizing: Most of the creation of text and context from the use of language is indexical -­‐ Almost always, as we speak and interact, we are using several kinds of indexicality simultaneouslyàwe know the contexts, our social roles, what is going to happen… and all of these together coming together when we talk -­‐ Most of what we think of as “meaning” –both linguistic and non-linguistic –is indexical Alessandro Duranti Quote: Ahearn P29 Example of indexicality Peirce’s Distinction With language Name of Sign Relation between sign&object Example Icon Resemblance Onomatepoeia: buzz Index or indexical Contiguity Dialects, Accents, Jargons, Point Professional Resisters Symbol Arbitrary Three ball example General Examples: -­‐ Quote: “in resolving the question… “…”Legalese” àlawyers; we have the association how the lawyers says; -­‐ “Shakespearean Idiom” n Outdated language; not real people’s regular days’ work; -­‐ Indexicalities of Register n Shakespear Idiom Vs. Real People n Social Superior or Putting on airs n Or Social inferior; paying Humble/staying equal Language Ideologies -­‐ Explicit explanation (theory) about language and how language works socially, which is related to, but doesn’t determine, the use of language (.e. the practice), that is language ideologies don’t accurately represent how people use language -­‐ Why the lawyers speak like “lawyer way” speaking? n A way of separating them from us; intelligent n Used deliberately to obscure n Because lawyer are crooks Referentialist Ideology -­‐ Idea that language is primarily or solely used, it is sole function, is to reflect reality. Reality here is understood to be independently constituted -­‐ But also, we will know that language also help to create the reality we are living but not just simply reflect -­‐ But also, we will know that language also help to create the reality we are living but not just simply reflect Ethnicizing/Racializing Language Ideologies -­‐ Wherever a separate lanauage can be found, there is also a separate nation which has the right to manage its affairs and rule itself—German philosopher Jhann Gottlieb Fichte 1808 -­‐ Example n They cut their words short because they are lazy n Using double negatives is a wrong to speak that person doesn’t know how to speak English n All immigrants should learn English Short Fun Assignment for Tutorial - Write down Tutorial Week 2 -­‐ Languages have different forms; -­‐ Anthropology is about theorizing language -­‐ Lisa’s field Research: Production of MC zone in MC church in Toronto -­‐ Email:[email protected] ​Index: Course and tutorial -­‐ Different ways of thinking -­‐ Lecture review: n How Pierce and Saussure think about language -­‐ Language Ideologies n Opinion, Generalization, stereotypes n You read a text but you don’t really understand n An artificially communication make no sense to people; key words: discursive, dispowering (form of oppression), reconpritzing; hegemonic, empowering, agency, n Space & time n “The words from no where” n Academes u Intelligence u Superiority u Sound smart u Arrogant, potential u Unnecessary; not on everyday basis; n Routinized lifeàyou have learned and socialized to know all the daily basis; and you learn this and reproduce all of these; predispositions→Habitant u You are reproduced and are reproducing the education system by being in it. n Question: u Whose? u How? u How assessable are they? u What is the relationship between social structure and forms of talk and language and communication ANTHROPOLOGY ​ ​ 2013/9/17 Week 3: Performativity ​ Intro: -­‐ Reading is hard with many terminologies; lecture and tutorials are helping to understand readings; -­‐ Announcement: Oct. 8 and Nov 19: everyone goes to 5PM tutorial -­‐ Course reading link in Blackboard -­‐ 6PM tutorialhasmore space, more possibility to getanswers Review of last lecture: -­‐ Language works through signs, i.e. forms which have multiple functions n Like your hair style and dressing are signs representing yourself; n Language also works as signs; -­‐ There are two important models of the sign, Saussure’s and Peirce’s; Peirce’s model is more complicated; -­‐ Peirce’s triple distinctionbetween icons, index and symbol gives us the basis for understanding that most sociocultural meaning is in fact indexical. n Most of social cultural meanings are actually created in contextualized environment; infinite meaning riches the language of culture -­‐ Peirce’s account of symbolic meaning also folds into his model Saussure’s idea of the linguistic sign -­‐ Language ideologies, ideas about language, are connected to how groups use language. These often inaccurate explanations about indexical meanings. n Not about lazy to cut language; it is part of relationship estabilished between institution and our ability to act in certain proper way à ex: standard English; not a question about the power but it is understood as correct; -­‐ A referentialistlanguage ideology has been the main theory for studying language in the (Western) scholarly traditions n The referentialist language: the main purpose and function of language is to refer and describe the things in the world. It means when I talking about the world, the world has been existing in front of me; what I am doing is to describe the world; it is a description; it means that you take the main thing of the language is about referring the reality; u Regarding cultural name… u Most of linguistic in the history assume this idea about what language show; u Therefore: in here, we are not affecting the world but rather only describe the world---the world preexisting before us~~like itdoesnotmatter thatwe callgravity asgravity u This is using language consistently u However !! The ideology practiced in language is very institutionalized for a long history; the problem of thishow we perceive the world isaffected by how we see the world;the way you produce the perception of the world isaffected by how you see the world; u The science we have study for so long has been filtered Behind theReferentialistIdeology… -­‐ One of the problem associated this is when you studying the new world, you preassume that the world existing before us;however, we also importthisconceptwhen we are studying language science; therefore there is a bundle of assumptionsattached with a history; -­‐ Scientific world/imaginary world Model of communication -­‐ What do you do when you want to communicate an idea? n What do you have to do when you want to speak? u Example: drawing out; you put them into signs and say it and you n Football Metaphor : u You have a concept in you mind (interior me), you use some signifier and put/package your ideas into signifier and give to other people (throw it away to the other person) and other people hear the sign (catch the ball) and respond to you; and then go around and around u What is wrong the picture that the person did not get the ball? l It is not always as straightforward as you expect; the person suppose to catch the ball was not able to catch ball l So it is not simply catching and receiving; u Assumptions (Ideology) u Assumptions (Ideology) l Speaker and addressee exist independently of the act of communication n In terms of speaking situation, we get into the lecture room, we become professors V.S. students; but that does not start until we know one another and lecturing l Speaker in essence puts intention/ideas into a message that s/he then throws to the addressee (Ahearn P167-8) n I have an idea inside and I want to communicate that. n Intention existing independently before speak n If the assumption is speaker has intention and ideas that could be put into words (assumption of knowledge) u But do we always know what you want to say about? u The assumptions of ideas, emotion or knowledge preexisting independently ~~ l They switch roles and “play catch” l Nothing about their social identitieschanges during the interaction n Social identities changes: marrying (yes, I do; you are now in the married category) n Sopranos Example u Clip watching l Tony speaks to his mother n Causal; comfortable; confident; teaching; words; aggressive when upset; blaming; l Tony tries to talk to mother using terms n Not looking at the woman; n Silent when upset; l Example: n Dr. Jennifer Melfi: it is a beautiful facility. It is more like a hotel at capd’Antibes n Tony Sopranos: yeah. But to her it is nursing home n Dr: Well, she needs to be made to see the distinction. That in fact, she is embarking on a rewarding chapter. I know senior who are inspired. And inspiring n …. n Tony: you do have to start planning for the future. You got the most rewarding chapter of your life coming up n Mother: I am not going to that nursing home n Tony: green grove is a retirement community! And it is more like a hotel at captain Teeb’s n Tony: you know seniors that are inspired u Regarding the football metaphor: l The respond we received is not always matches with our expectations; l If you believe what you do/communicate is put what you want into worlds but result would not be perfectasyou expect; l F.M: we have an idea prior before us; l He is like a son eating foods and caring about the living condition about his mother but at the same time he wants to the psychotherapist at the same time…but failed Performativity: How to do things with words—John Austin, 1911-1960 -­‐ ConstativeV.S. Performative Constative Performative “It’s raining outside” “I hereby crown you the Queen of Spades” “The students took the exam” “I hereby pronounce you wife & husband.” “e=mc” à Energy equals to Mass times C Description of the world as it already exists Makes some state of affairs come into being You have not got the name until someone does something Evaluated as true or false Evaluated for success or failure (felicitous or infelicitous) I don’t understand why you say unicorn since it does exist. No, you did not or you could not. -­‐ Austin thinks about the two different concepts -­‐ Explicit Primary Perfomatives: Examples from Page 5 n Formal Construction: I + Verb (simple present tense) + [You/object] u Example: l I do (Sc. Take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife ) –as uttered in a marriage ceremony l I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth –as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stem. l I give and bequeath my watch to my brother—as occurring in a will. l I bet you sixpence it will rain tomorrow l I swear to tell the truth u Certain stamps or an official handout coming with legal power to make the sentences affective; u Certain stamps or an official handout coming with legal power to make the sentences affective; furthermore, you will notice all of these thing successful coming with some institutional norms or rules; l This makes one sentence ritual. -­‐ Speech Acts: n Term from philosopher John Searle, student of Austin n Individual speaker n Intention (or intential state) still pre-existing n Speaker uses form (e.g. I hereby name you…) appropriate to produce result n Social identities canchange(eg. Become married ) n …(check lecture slides) -­‐ Performative? n I insult you n Compare “I bite my thumb” Romeo and Juliet n I constract with you n In make fund of you n I make you laugh n I address you n Why don’t these social acts appear as explicit primapre yrformative constructions? u ????? -­‐ Constant Performativity? n “By the second half o How to do ….are we not doing something?” Asutin 1962:91---Ahearn PP 164-165 -­‐ Take-away of Theory of Performativity n Undermining Constative/perfomative distinction n Performativity is aligning of communicativeindexicality to try and achieve a goal while talking n Understanding that to some degree, every moment of taking is to (re- )create the reality of some social world, however temporary n This includes social identities àat somehow produced n Example: performative —even referring to an entitiy is a perfomative act u A: The student took the exam u B: Which student? u A: The one over there (pointing) u B: Oh u In the moment of Bsays “Oh”, he understand, the “student” become “the student” that both A and B understand therefore, we are kind of creating “the student” atthisconversation;the momentthe B student understand the “the student” is the moment the creation happens u Notice that the reference has been made only when speaker B actually figures out which student is being pointed atline 4. -­‐ Performativesocial identities? n “You do have to satartplanning for the futre. You got the most rewarding chapter of your life coming up”. ​ u “In short, Butler takes Austin’s insight that to say it s to do and transforms it into a claim that to say or do isto be” l Ahearn P170 -­‐ To speak is to do being n Almost redundant to think about “performatives ” n At some scale, or at multiple….. check the slides~~~~ Review: -­‐ Challenging thereferentlist ideology -­‐ Description of reality -­‐ Football metaphor ofcommuminication -­‐ Performativesin English challenge these language ideologies -­‐ Re-creating social world to some extent through speaking -­‐ Performativeand social identities Critics: Michelle Z. Rosaldoon Ilongot Speak Speech Acts: From Language in society, 1982 -­‐ Based on the Pilipino society; -­‐ Ilongot are people living in the mountains, hunting and gathering society; women –garden work; men— hunting; hunting; -­‐ Michelle’s critiquing Speech Act Theory n Presumes a Western idea of personhood: u Individual, apart from social ties u Intension comes from an interior self u Agency (ability to carry something out) is understood through interior self, also location of responsibility l If you are trialed as murderer, you also get approved that you want/intendfor the killing u Explicit performative is the paradigm speech act à nothing like thisin Ilongot society -­‐ Ilongot Notions of Person: n No notion of “intention” from an interior self but rather idea of “heart” n “Heart” involves relations to others n Things happen when the “heart” becomes inflamed, which requires control n Commands (tuydek) directothers n Mean are considered the most apt to direct their “heart” -­‐ Describing the Ilongot social world n “Lacking such institutions as the office, church or court…..... and Open out his burden heart” -­‐ Why it is important for the “office, church, or court”? n They are the institutions for individuals to have a sense of Week 4: Ritual 2013/9/24 Introduction: -­‐ The lecture is a ritual that I announce -­‐ The everyday language like making a promise to someone is a ritual -­‐ The complexity of ritual in the whole society—Large scale—Language has the property/aspect of putting everything together; Announcements -­‐ Midterm in two weeks! Questions, questions. -­‐ Will use part of next week’s lecture for partial review—thinking about questions may be necessary for the lecture; -­‐ Office Hours: 1:30 to 3:30 MW 372, but this week 2-4pm -­‐ ******Midterm th n Midterm exam, October 8 , 2013 n 50 minutes n Advice: For both parts I and II, make sure to“show your work,” meaning that you should give as full an explanation as possible so that partial marks can be given where appropriate. Good luck! n Part I: Identification (20 Minutes) u Identify 3 of the following six terms. Make sure you provide a specific definition of the term, as well as discuss an example that shows why the term is important for the course. (39 points = 3 x 13 points each) n Part II: Essay Question (30 Minutes) u Answer 1 of the following three questions. In your answer, be sure to include at least one relevant example from lecture, tutorial or the readings. (61 points) l 3 paragraphs;whatisreferentialideology;whatisproblem of it? Whatisthe example of it? Review -­‐ For historical reasons, areferentialist ideology has been a major assumption in the scholarly study of language—related to the history of science in searching about language; the model of understanding language is thrown into learning language; -­‐ The referentialist ideology as part of the set of assumptions that go into a football metaphor of communication hasbeen critiqued on many grounds n The idea that the participant has something and want to say, and another participant receive it and suppose to unpack it and understand it n The assumptions: the speakers constitute oneself—the white person or black person—the way you speak creating yourself as a speaker -­‐ The term performativityhas been given to the notion that the use of language (re- )creates social relations and worlds (the study of performativity is called Speech Act Theory) n The way we dress/look going beyond the performativity -­‐ Even for describing performativity English speaking societies, Speech Act Theory contained problems: undue emphasis on explicit, primary performative formulation n There is undo references àI here to name you as Lisa—also describing the action to the second person n Many verb in English but not actually means it –I insult you NOT = to You are insulted -­‐ Significantly, manyparadigmaticexamples used in Speech Act Theory were taken from highly-ritualized contexts n It is not the form of sentence making things happen but it is the context -­‐ Linguistic anthropological approaches (e.g. Rosaldo) to performativity discovered that Speech Act Theory embedded many assumptions about personhood Critiquing Speech Act Theory—continued from last week’s lecture -­‐ Intro: challenges many assumptions in referentialist ideology à Tony was trying to do the therapy on his mother by taking the wordsfrom the therapist àhe isnota therapistand notin the therapy context à therefore he could notmake it à why there is problem here? About word coming from other context àspeech act theory suggest that if you want to do something as promise à I promise that the midterm would be very easy—while in Tony’s example, he get all of the words from the therapist---“ALL” the words from the therapist?? ?-->kind of from but kind of not à according to Speech theory à you could take wordsand create a new speech butnotfit~~~ Michelle Z.Rosaldo on ----IlongotSpeech Acts u From Language in Society, 1982—very different society—agriculture -­‐ Presumes a Western idea of personhood: — Individual, apart from social ties à As single adult — Intention comes from an interior self — Bias/opinions: what/when is the opinio ànmade based on you know the world but not the scientific àwe have some individual idea retain to us; — Bias: because of personal preferenc àeindividual standing behind one opinion could be understood as biasàas individual intention coming from inside ß you have your own ideas — Agency (ability to carry something out) is understood through interior self, also location of responsibility — Hate words in public environment — Ppl being responsible for own words — Explicit performative is the paradigm speech act -­‐ Ilongot Notions of Person -­‐ No notion of “intention” from an interior self but rather idea of “heart” - à NO individual opinion -­‐ “Heart” involves relations to others àwhen the Heart become inflamed -­‐ Things happen when the “heart” becomes inflamed, which requires control -­‐ Commands(tuydek) directothers -­‐ Men are considered the most apt to direct their “heart” à very generalized society àMen better control on heart -­‐ Describing the Ilongot Social World n Lacking such institutions as the office, church, or court, most Ilongot social life took place within large one-room houses. Each family in these simple homes was apt to store its goods and concentrate for sleep and eating in the vicinity of a single sunken hearth - the number of hearths per household (between one and three) serving as a reasonable index of its component family units. Hearth and family space were located on the “edges” - usually raised platforms - that surrounded larger, undivided “centers,” where young children talked and played, and adultscooked and then apportioned food for regular household mealswhere individualized platesof rice and viand would be distributed equally to all. Characteristically, life at an “edge” was calm and quiet. When positioned comfortably on a platform.the whittling muser could ignore much of the bustling life around him and enjoy the silent pleasures of a window that might serve to ease and “open out” his burdened heart. u Why church kind of thing important: the fact we have sentences like I swear to tell the truth, are associatedwiththese kindof institutions, whichritually give these sentencesconstructionsand power; you could not find the power of the language itself but only with context like church, court, or office; n Within the house, no single space was delegated to a single category of persons. But it was not long before I found it all too clear that adult men alone were regularly privileged to enjoy the "lazy"case of platforms. These men would pass requests for betel, water, and supplies to youths, and, in particular, to women. And women, when themselves at rest or else engaged in their routine domestic chores, would either move or else command, in turn. their "children,"to "get up"and "fetch"things in quick and relatively unordered movement acrossthe common floor. u She was describing the social context of daily routine happens—men controls the hearts àwithout institutions in società this is the way things happens in the society there -­‐ Use of Commands among Ilongot n To direct the unfocused energy of women or the undisciplined energy of children: u “The child needs commands, Ilongots say, b/c its heart lacks “knowledge” of the world. And it is through tuydek, or commands that adults first shape the movements of young hearts, thus teaching youthsto think of thingsthatshould be done, and speak in knowing words.” u (Of lesser importance) In story-telling, use commands to introduce character n No similar statements to “I promise…” u When people failed to show up at what she thought was the appointed time, and she was angry, they were mostly concerned about how gifts might assuage the unexpected anger. “[ W]hatIlongots lack from a perspective such as ours is something like our notion of an inner self continuous through time, a self whose actions can be judged in terms of the sincerity, integrity, and commitment actually involved in his or her bygone pronouncements.” u àAll actions are understood with the heart, and commands u Understood as exchange relationship u Suggest a person inside??? u Your communication with others is understood as controlling of hearts -­‐ Ilongot Speech Acts—The role of language à is to control heart Ilongot Speech Acts—The role of language à is to control heart n Nothing like explicit, primary performatives n Either brief commands, which are very common in households, and require immediate action n Or other kinds of utterances which require uptake, and thus more involved calculations about kinship and hierarchy Review -­‐ Speech Act Theory assume specific notions of personhood -­‐ A non-Western society like the Ilongot makes the assumption apparent àhow other society ppl doing something with languages; how performativity works? -­‐ A first implication of Rosaldo’swork: close relation between practice and the forms available in a language à Like I promise to do things -­‐ A second implication: sense of self related to local practices -­‐ Comparison between the Western society VIsl.longot n The language suggest to us what kind of ppl who we are n She was angry àshe would not say that “I am sorry”, which in western culture, is about feeling bad because did notfulfillthe command;while for her, she would say thatHow can I calm my inflaming heart Ritual: the anthropological problem -­‐ Intro: it is about the ritual is playing a role as magic defining conzirity of defining society; Maybe the Illogot undertstand the magic would not have anything relevant to science; therefore they will doubt the abilty to reflect the reality -­‐ Ritual: the problem n “[According to this older anthropological tradition:] The believer cannot get outside the web of his thought, he cannot be agnostic,there is no vision of alternatives. Furthermore, it portrays unreflective thinking—that is, traditional thought lacks logic and philosophy and reflection upon the rules of explanation.” u Tambiah, “Form and Meaning of Magical Acts,” pp. 82-83 u He is critiquing the above u There is a way of communicating here called as thinking…they are speech b/c they lack the logic to reflect the causality, but just repeating the traditions; n In here: u Text as fixed, repetitive, predictable u Language can be excessively formal, obscure, opaque ànottransformed in the causality effect u Ritual doesn’t allow for reflection, spontaneity, creativ àiherefore it is able to establish power u Ritual therefore possible space for establishing power l Whatis the two major things in today Christianity? n Protestantism—Catholics—you should be able to speak to the God by yourselves but rather than through others like catholicts n -­‐ Ritual: the problem n “[witchcraft] provides a social and cultural method of acting upon the world…Thus, through ritual man imposes meaning on the world, anticipates the future, retrospectively “rationalizes” the past, and effects results. n …a sacrifice which creates the cosmos persists because it “creates” the world in a sense that is different from that known in the laboratory.” u Tambiah, “Form and Meaning of Magical Acts,” p. 84 What is a Ritual? -­‐ What do we do with ritual? -­‐ How does Ritual Work? n Obama Taking Oath—Video Clip u How it start address Obama and how it ends with Mr. Presisdent u Where: Washington u The one giving the Oath: the supreme Court à Highest justice in US; huge group of people and TV broadcasting u What is recreating or creating? What happen in this ritual situation? Whtahteisconstitute here? l A new president; it is so important since he is the new leader, reconstitute a leader by the whole citizen electionà recollection of political world; l Rituals not only just creating, but risks involved; l When he was repeating the oaths wron àppl could say he is not the president because he did l When he was repeating the oaths wron àppl could say he is not the president because he did nothave the proper ritual;“he gotthe formula wrong and he isnotthe president” n Obama Re-taking Oath u To get rid of the previous trouble makers à they practice the ritual again at a smaller state u You suppose to say it correctly with certain people; presents of himself only; Ritual Text n “The text never really exists outside of highly focused token performances, and furthermore, its efficacy is perceived to be determined at least in part by participant concentration.” n Hanks, “Santificifation, etc” p. 152 Form(ality ) of Ritual Communication --Language Standing out -­‐ Formality: Special vocabularies n Table 1: Figurative Vocab in Curing & Magical Ikarkana, Sherzer p. 132. u One way is using special vocabularies u Like the Latin example, but the meanings is specialized Word Meaning inIkar Colloquial kurkin brainpower hat inna ipet Kuna person owner of inna urwetule evilspirit, sickness angry person alulukwale red firelike ansuelu fangs of snake hook etc. n Sekretto àfrom Spanish u santa lusia e pasato u kona leche u pita se kayo u wespasario u paitera amen n “They [secrets] have no referential content but evoke a mystical magic through their rhymes and rhythms.” -- Sherzer, p. 117 -­‐ Formality: Special Organization of Text n Display of knowledge& Parallelism : Help to diagram and figure the knowledges Inapiseptili in the golden box is moving. ​ ​ in the golden box is moving. Inapiseptili in the golden box is swinging side to side ​ ​ in the golden box is swinging side to side Inapiseptili in the golden box is trembling ​ ​ in the golden box is trembling ​ ​ ​ ...is palpitating... ​ ​ ​ ...is making a noise... ​ ​ ​ ...is shooting out.... “birth of basil cane,” -- Sherzer , p. 121, 131 n Diagram them in to math symbols a b c x z b c x z a b d W x z b d w x x z a b e W x z etc. n Birth of the Basil Cane, -S-herzer, p. 131 n Saying lanuages Twice àdifferentthings tgoing one -­‐ Formality: Special Performance Delivery n “...[there] is the tightening of the larynx in secondary contexts, resulting in a voice quality considered to be aesthetically pleasing” u --Sherzer, pp. 118-119 u --Sherzer, pp. 118-119 n To produce a large scale effect -­‐ Presidential Oath n I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. n The things happened twice in the two oath u Hands up; Bible; Capital building; highest standing ; with presence of important attendance u Special vocabularies u Repeating the worlds u A lot of Parallism built into the whole oath à all of these grouping together to formalize our language; -­‐ Ritual:why go to all the trouble? That put all of the languages together and to put so a lot of things together to make this? Just about repeating the traditionsasrepetitive things? What happen he did not do this? n Structuring depends on the ritual locations n Marriage: common law living is not married~~ n People has to recognize the social identity is changed; you could not check the box of “married à”it is relevant to you as a social, economic, religious person; Review -­‐ Ritual, including the language used, has often been described as fixed and repetitive text and performance -­‐ This is due in part because ritualized language use, more so than language use in other contexts, makes the text stand out àthe awareness of using languages is to make the ritual coming out as traditions -­‐ Formally, this quality of standing out is achieved by (among other) special vocabularies, special organization of text to diagram knowledge, intensive use of parallelisms, and special performance styles -­‐ In terms of social goals, the elaborate ritualization of some event—making it really stand o
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