Final Exam Study Guide.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Merav Shohet

Final Exam Study Guide1 Ideological State Apparatus Japanese Mothers and Obento The LunchBox as Ideological State Apparatus by Anne AllisonThe Author draws upon Louis Althussers idea that power is a force that operates in ways that are subtle disguised and accepted as everyday social practice Althusser differentiated between two major structures of power in modern capitalist societies State Apparatus SA and Ideological Stat Apparatus ISAISA is a structure of power through institutions that have over function other than apolitical andor administrative one mass media education health and welfare for example ISA is designed and accepted as practices with other purposes to educate entertain inform it serves not only their stated objective but also an unstated one that of indoctrinating people into seeing the world a certain way and of accepting certain identities as their own within the world ISA is the most influential in capitalist societies It can be far more reaching and insidious than SA hidden in movies we watch the music we hear textbooks we read it is overlooked because it is protected It is so potent because it becomes not only ours but us the terms and machinery by which we structure ourselves and identify who we areThe author links the concept of ISA with the Obento Anne Allison states that the obento is intended to ease a childs discomfiture of being away from the home and entering nursery school the real world however the obento is designed more as a test for children Nursery teachers exhort students to consume their obento then examine their obento to ensure all food is consumed IT is the childs duty to eat the food This is an injunction to follow directions obey rules and accept the authority of the school system In addition the nursery school differentiates between the child who does and the one who does not manage the rituals often there is a penalty Therefore students usually end up developing the aptitude willingness and desire to conform to the highly ordered and structured practices of nurseryschool life The author once makes a link between such and the ideology presented by Althusser the mechanism works wen ideas about the world become families and ones own For mothers the obento is gendered ISA Their task is getting the child to consume what they prepare It is advised that mothers prepare the food in away that would facilitate the childs duty to eat it Magazines are filled with pages of recipes hints pictures and ideas devoted to obentos The obento is meant as a device to assist a child in the struggles of first adjusting to school and the mothers role is generally perceived as that of support Therefore if the child succeeds the mother is complimented if the child fails the mother is blamed Motherhood is institutionalized through the childs school and such routines as making the obento as a fulltime keptathome job The obentos message is that the world is constructed very precisely and that the role of any single Japanese in that world must be carried out with the same degree of precision 2Health discourses in relation to foodways Whats in Your Lunch Box Today Health Respectability and Ethnicity in the Primary Classroom by Martha Sif KarrebaekA study on the linguistic and interactional use of the concept of health and more particularly of healthy food The author demonstrates how health is an important meaningful and consequential category in lunch encounters between teachers and children in a primary classroom in Denmark The author focuses on the meanings of what is treated as healthy food The study takes place within an ethnically and culturally diverse grade 0 The focus is on the teachers emphasis of the superiority of rye bread a traditional type of whole grain bread in Denmark The teachers justify this superiority in terms of health The issue however is that health is a culturally embedded subject amongst these students Food practices are used to construct demonstrate and interpret individuals affiliation to social communities The issue of health within the classroom was particularly pertinent at lunch children consumed food brought from home Their lunchboxes usually contained a selection of raw fruit and vegetables as well as open sandwiches on rye bread with a topping Some children brought both white bread and rye bread Teachers made exceptions on what was acceptable and what wasnt they would encourage rye bread and discouraged white bread With a large majority of Danish students where talk about rye bread is an integral part of the food culture teachers demanded that students ate their rye bread as it was categorized as healthy Children of other minority families seemed to ignore the dominant food ideology however teachers kept rummaging through their bags and lunchboxes and telling children that this food was unhealthy called their parents and wrote in their report books but little did it change The preference for healthy over unhealthy and the moral understanding of health is embedded as a presupposition in the teachers discourse and the child is enjoined to share the teachers value system I n order to become a respectable school child Dinner by Elinor Ochs and Margaret BeckAuthor argues that twentyfirstcentury American parents appear to be unable to prioritize the ritual of family dinner Busy lives of family members outside the home are not the only culprit in the saga of the American family dinner Two issues were challenged 1 convenience foods filling refrigerators and cupboards supplied individualized snacks and meals for family members 2 family dinnertime often gave way to intergenerational conflicts surrounding childrens food choices Twentyfirst century families freezers contained raw meats vegetables and ice cream but were often buried under an avalanche of frozen convenience snacks and meals especially individualsized preparation items that can be microwaved When it came to dinnertime parents and children often entered into food negotiations complete with bargaining enticements and threats Some parents insisted that children eat certain foods considered healthy This time was a match of wills Parents dwelled on the nutritious value of food items and expressed appreciation for the meal In contrast children often expressed their distaste for the food prepared for them usually they would complain During these dinnertime tussles with children parental confusion over
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