- History of Origin of Early Homo
- East and South African fossil sites with Homo, tools, and Australopthecine
- Hobo habilis and Homo rudolfensis True Homo or Australopithecine?
- Oldwean tools
- Points to Africa and say and we have to look at Apes there are 2 apes in Africa and only 1 in Indonesia
o This was just one view we might take it for granted but at the time it was a big thing.
o Today we will look at a family that studied in Indonesia
Asian, European, or African Origin
Darwin and Africa
Haeckle, Dubois, and Javaman
- Haeckle convinced that ancestor would lie in far East
- Dubois*** his student: went to Indonesia and found remains that had hallmarks of being an old human
o They had large brain
o These specimens together have been called Java man
o This was found in Indonesia so it opened ways to study in Indo
- Neandetherals are also biped and they have human-like traits. There are still debates on it though.
- British were jealous that they were not finding human ancestor remains.
So Piltdown said he found cranium bolt in Europe. (the largest scientific fraud)
- He glued back the pieced together and also found mandible.
- Thing that was intriguing about it was that there were only molars showing.
- Piltdown man had large brain and a VERY robust jaw like man. It has dentition like row-rounded.
- Had human-like head, particularly robust canine, and robust mandible
o Function of dentition wouldnt work this way though
o It was a medieval human skull, fossil orangutan mandible, and chimp canine
- At the same time, Taung child was discovered (tiny fossil cranium of 6-year-old)
- Discovered by Raymond Dart (U of Witwatersrand in S. Africa)
- They thought it was a bigger discovery but this was something else.
- So academic community said instead of having large brain first it was bipedal first, so they rejected this as human ancestor at first.
- Java man was the earliest of human erectus form
- At about 2.5 million years ago, you see adaptive radiation spread of many different species living in same area where you normally only find
one species in one space. There is 1.5 million years overlap - 2.5-3 million years ago earth was moving to pilocene boundaries beginning of great ice age.
- Exactly what we see in adaptive radiation when see major shift.
- We see extreme drying desperate time for species.
- On the very right side, there is rapid change and variability in the environment.
Olduvai gorge and early homo
- Louis and Mary Leaky 1959
o 7m below Bed 1 (2.1-1.7 MYA)
o Dear Boy (OH5) + tools and animal bones
o Boisei at Olduvai Gorge
Post orbital constriction
We thought this was the next step in human ancestor because it was found with bones and tools.
- In 1960
o Beds 1 and 2: in-between form of Australopithecines and Homo erectus
- Bigger brains and studies of hand bones precision grip and true handy man: Homo habilis
o Homo habilis
We know it is older than 2.2 million years ago because it was found 7m below Bed I.
It was found with post cranial remains
We need to find muscle movement in order to make stone tools
OH24 (Twiggy) and OH5 (Dear Boy)
- Oh24 Twiggy
o Some parts of it is missing
o Precision grip
o Important how much less post orbital this means there is expanded brain
Olduvai early Homo compared to Australopithecines
- If compared OH24 and 25, twiggy is smaller, but much larger brain size
- There was debate when twiggy was found because
o We had to compare them to what trait was already known, and there was only 2
o They said Twiggy was Austropithecine because it has small brain
o But it has more important hallmarks that is close to human
Reduced size of back teeth; but still capable of dealing with rouch foods (nuts)
Larger anterior teeth
Means it is becoming more generalized
Tear things like meat No sagittal crest (meaning large jaw is lacking)
Brain is larger = need a lot of protein (meet)
Olduvai early Homo compared to Homo erectus
- Maybe it is early homo erectus form
o But when compared twiggy and homo erectus, twiggy is so much smaller although they are very similar
o Early homo has weird traits that it has particularly long arms which means it was spending time in trees. But H. erectus was
o Much smaller brain
o Maintains ape body proportions (long arms and short legs)
o Lengths of arms = arboreal lifestyle?
o More primitive than Australopithecine?
That was East so far. Now moving onto South
Early Homo in South Africa
o Member 1 P. robustus
o Members 1 and 2 (1.5 MYA) P. robustus and early Homo
o Member 5 (1.5-2 MYA) P. robustus, early Homo and many stone tools
- But some researchers strongly believe they are actually Homo erectus
StW 53 early Homo and Homo erectus
- Similar shape skull
- H. erectus picture on slide: Late classic ones look like who was found in China complete fossil
- All these fossil remains from EA and SA clearly bigger brains than australopithecine but there is still debate whether they should be homo or
just large brain
Who is early homo? 2 species?
- Koobi fora they have 1000s of specimens
- Leaky found H. rudolfensis in Eastern Africa
o Everyone wanted to say it was just a male version of homo habilis
- Compared to homo habilis, they are very different. They have similar brain to body ratio though. One has bigger forehead, they found some
post cranium with it and they are long legged and short arms which is homo erectus and homo sapiens trait.
- So they could be sexual dimorphism (one female and one male) if they had different leg lengths.
- ER 1813 looks very similar to twiggy. Similar dentition, facial development, etc.it was unbelievable that you could find 2 diff species in a
same. But in Koobi Fora it was found.
- Olduvai Gorge and Koobi Fora
- It may have had more human-like body proportions
o Larger legs than H. habilis
o Fit nicely in terms of brain size
o Good candidate for ancestor of homo erectus
o Leaky was trying to make this older than it actually was
- But still has large face, thich teeth and thick jaws = not human-like
- Some people suggest that it was more advanced but prof disagree. It has large teeth, face, thick jaw, and non-human like discourse.
Homo erectuss ancestor is:
- Is it Homo habilis or rudolfensis or boisei or garhi
- We know it is not boisei because it was specialized and there was no time for boisei to become homo erectus form.
- Prof thinks rudol is more like it because of similarity to human body. Habilis still has very austroralpithecis.
- Australopithecines o bipedal apes
- Homo erectus
o truly larger brains
o advanced tool use, the Acheulian
o Longer arms than arms
o Human-like teeth and jaws
Would the real ancestor stand up:
- If they were in some ways more primitive than australopithecines, who was the ancestor of Homo erectus? A. garhi?
o A. garhi (Ethiopia) has more human-like body proportions longer legs
o Cut-marked bones imply tool use and meat eating
- Prof also thinks there is not enough time for Garhi to be in human lineage
Hominid Brain and Meat Consumption
- Increase in brain size correlated with appearance of meat in the hominin diet
- The human brain consumes more than twice the energy of the brains of nonhuman primates
- Boisei was very specialized
- Habilis were utilizing and was smashing open
- Use of tools
The earliest signs of tools and culture
- Problem solvers
o They have never seen it
o You need high quality fine brain to make tools
o We think we can link communication
o i.e. use of stone tools to butcher and prepare meat
- Tool manufacture
o Emphasizing manual dexterity and fine manipulation, resulting in improved organization of nervous system
- Abstract idea of tool and steps/materials to make it and teach process
When language starts
- Teaching tool making requires cooperation, planning and foresight
- Humans and apes share as gesture-call system
- Humans and apes share language potential
- These shared abilities must have been possessed by the earliest hominins as well
o Culture is linked to communication of language
o Modern day examples they just gesture and calls with communicate with each other
o They have potential of langu