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Midterm

ANTC68 Midterm Review Notes .pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC68H3
Professor
R Song
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC68 Midterm #1 Review Notes Lecture 1: ▪ Lecture 1 General Taxonomy: Primates: 2 suborders: Prosimians Anthropoids - Lemurs - monkey - Lorises - Apes - Pottos - Humans - Galagos - Tarsiers 2 Infraorders: Platyrrhines Catarrhines -NWM - OWM - Apes - Humans Primates: 2 suborders: Strepsirhines Haplorhines - Lemurs - monkey - Lorises - Apes - Pottos - Humans - Galagos - Tarsiers * note: tarsier categorized as haplorhines bc eats insects and morphology similar to anthropoids* * note: All strepsirhines have a rhinarium * ▪General characteristics of Primates: ⁃ large brain relative to body size ⁃ binocular vision (stereoscopic vision) ⁃ Hypothesis for binocular vision: 1) 3D arboreal environment 2) visual predation hypothesis : earliest primates were probably insectivores ⁃ nails (no claws) ⁃ opposable thumb ⁃ divergent big toe ⁃ dermatogylphs (fingerprints) ⁃ clavicle (collarbone) ⁃ post-orbital bar (cranial feature) (racoon, lemur and gibbons have post-orbital bar) PROSIMIANS ▪ Prosimians General Characteristics: ⁃ small bodied (smaller than 10kg) ⁃ chemical communication via scent-marking common (olfactory communication) ⁃ tooth comb (modified incisors and canines) ⁃ grooming claw on second toe ⁃ tapetum lucidum ▪Prosimians are restricted to OW = in Africa and Asia LEMURS • only found in Madagascar • many are nocturnal • some are diurnal • others cathedral (active during the day and night) • some species show "female dominance" ✓ LEMUR CATTA (RING TAILED LEMUR) ⁃ female dominant ⁃ troop size can be as large as 30 animals ⁃ Diurnal…? ⁃ many vocalizations (howl bark, purr, mew) ⁃ sexually monomorphic ✓ EULEMUR ( "TRUE" LEMURS) ⁃ Cathemeral ⁃ no clear sex-depedent dominance ⁃ some live in small family groups, some groups are larger ⁃ some sexual dichromatic ✓ VARECIA VARIEGATA (RUFFED LEMURS) ⁃ give birth to litters ⁃ "park" infants ⁃ have multiple nipples ⁃ live in small family groups ⁃ loud alarm calls ✓ INDRIIDS AND SIFAKA ⁃ avahi, indri, and propithecus ⁃ all are folivorous (eat leaves) ⁃ largest of the lemurs ⁃ primary mode of locomotion: vertical clinging and leaping; bipedal hopping on ground ✓ HAPALEMUR & PROLEMUR (BAMBOO LEMURS) ⁃ cathemeral ⁃ bamboo "specialists" ⁃ consumes high levels of cyanide in bamboo ✓ DAUBENTONIA MADAGASCARIENSIS (AYE-AYE) ⁃ ever-growing incisors ⁃ insectivores ⁃ elongated middle finger to tap on wood, uses ears to listen for grubs inside ⁃ inhabits woodpecker niche ✓ MOUSE LEMURS, DWARF LEMURS, FORK-MARKED LEMUR ⁃ family cheirogaleidae ⁃ nocturnal ⁃ mouse lemur is the smallest living primate ⁃ fat-tailed drwarf lemur hibernates (and enters torpor) LORISIFORMES • all are nocturnal • all park infants ⁃ LORISES ⁃ asia ⁃ toxins in saliva = if bites human, will go in shock ⁃ slow , stealthy movement ⁃ functional and not anti- predator ⁃ POTTOS ⁃ African mainland ⁃ have a "scapular shield" (raised tubercles on back that are covered by thick skin and bristles) for defense ⁃ GALAGOS "BUSH BABIES" ⁃ Africa ⁃ carry infants in their mouths ⁃ urine wash (thought to be for scent-marking and territorial purposes = now believed to be for better grip) ⁃ slightly wet =better grip ⁃ big as a rabbit ⁃ good bin
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