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Department
Art History
Course
VPHA46H3
Professor
Kucherova Darya
Semester
Fall

Description
Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 1 Woman from Prehistoric, 24,000 BCE Willendorf Paleolithic Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Made from limestone, traces of red ochre • 4 inches • Large breast, a bulging stomach, wide hips and solid thighs Cultural Context • This artist may be showing her health and fertility, which would ensure the ability to produce strong children, thus guaranteeing the survival of the community. • Venus of Willendorf was the original name but then was changed because Venus means spiritual/religious ties which they didn’t know, therefore the name was changed to women because of the shape of the figurine which symbolizes fertility. 2 Hall of Bulls, Prehistoric, 15,000 BCE Lascaux caves Paleolithic Formal Characteristics • Paint on limestone • Largest length of bull is 18’ • Overlap of images and a wide range of animal species • Painted with earth colored pigments first outlined then filled with color • Located deep within the cave • Create the illusion of movement • Slightly exaggerated features Cultural Context • May be interpreted as examples of sympathetic magic (possible symbolic capture of the animal) • Educational tool • Early form of writing 3 Stonehenge Prehistoric, 3000-1500 BCE Neolithic Formal Characteristics • Built in several stages A ditch surrounding the stones • 56 pits (known as Aubrey Holes containing rubble or human bones) • An alter stone and a mile long avenue 1 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Made of Sarsen and Bluestones (imported from Wales 150 miles away) Cultural Context • Since its orientation is related to the position of the sun at the solstice, some believed that it was an observatory to track cosmic events or a calendar for regulating agricultural schedules. • Sacred site containing burial grounds (funerary district) 4 Stele of Naramsin Mesopotamian, 2254-2218 BCE Sumerian Formal Characteristics • Stone slab • Limestone • 6’6” • King is largest person in the scene • Idealized (masculinity emphasized) Cultural Context • The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin is a relieved depiction of the King's victory. • The hierarchy of scale shows Naram-Sin is the most important figure in the piece. Everyone in the piece looks up towards Naram-Sin, who has a heroic and God-like stance on top of the mountain. 5 Stele of Mesopotamian, 1792-1750 BCE Hammurabi Babylon Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Basalt • Height of stele is 7’ height or relief is 28” Cultural Context • In the tradition of Ancient art it depicts a legendary event, the conversation about justice between god and man. At the same timing it is an historical document recording laws and their punishments. • The concept of god-given laws engraved in stone is a longstanding tradition in the Ancient Near East. 6 Palette of Narmer Ancient Egypt, 2950 BCE Early Dynastic period 2 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Formal Characteristics • Green Schist • Slab • 25” • Almost completely in profile • Twisted perspective (combination of perspective) • Hieroglyphs Cultural Context • Narmer is the largest figure depicted on the palette, and he towers over the less important human beings who surround him. The issue of size to indicate relative status is known as hierarchical scale. • On one side of the palette, Narmer is depicted wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt, on the other side he is shown wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt. Both sides portray him victorious over his enemies, he raises a mace to smite a prisoner. 7 Menkaure and his Ancient Egypt, 2490 BCE wife Old Kingdom Formal Characteristics • 54 ½” • Stone sculpture • Idealized as athletic, youthful figures • Balanced, rigid, with one foot extended but no movement in the hips • All limbs close to the body Cultural Context • Royal tomb sculpture • Represent the ideal of manly beauty in old kingdom Egypt 8 Great Pyramids Ancient Egypt, 2575 BCE Old Kingdom Formal Characteristics • Granite and limestone • 137m • 3 false passage ways were created to mislead others from getting at tomb Cultural Context • Funerary art; pyramid will be the home for the king and his tomb • Built never to be disturbed 3 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 9 Akhenaten Ancient Egypt, 1336 BCE (Sculpture) New Kingdom Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Sandstone with traces of polychromy • 13’ • Limbs close together • Narrow head, lips and jaw line Cultural Context • Created new Religious belief in a singular god named Aton. • He appointed himself as the prophet to this monotheistic religion • Created a new capital city 10 Nefertiti (bust) Ancient Egypt, 1353 BCE Old Kingdom Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Painted Limestone • 20” • Color around eyes emphasized folds, “wrinkles” Cultural Context • Sculptures solely made of head and shoulders we’re rare during this time period so scholars believe that Tutmose may have made this one as a finished model to follow in carving or painting other images of his royal patrons. 11 Great Stupa at Early Asian art, 150-50 BCE Sanchi Kushan dynasty (india) Formal Characteristics • Brick • Dome shape • 10 ft high stone railing—punctured by 4 stone gateways, rings the entire stupa Cultural Context • Buddha is represented by symbols such as the stupa. • Stupa’s derived from burial mounds. • Rituals took place at the stupas 4 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 12 Standing Buddha Early Asian, 2 -3 century from Gandhara Kushan period (Pakistan) Formal Characteristics • 7’6” • Made of schist • Sculpture • Trobe is carved in tight, rib-like folds alternating with delicate creases. • His masculinity can still be seen through his robe Cultural Context • Buddha is portrayed as more powerful and heroic than ordinary humans • All Buddha’s are distinguished by 32 physical features among them are bulge on top of head, a tuft of hair between the eyebrows etc. 13 Buddha and Early Asian, 1 -early 2nd Attendants from Kushan Period century CE Mathura (India) Formal Characteristics • Red sandstone • 27 ¼” • Sculpture Cultural Context • Seated Buddha is seated in a yoga position and his right hands are in mudra, a symbolic hand gesture which means “have no fear” 14 Eternal Shiva Early Asian, Mid-6 century Gupta Period Formal Characteristics • Carved out of the caves walls • Height 11’ • 3 heads are shown but 5 heads are implied Cultural Context • The heads summarize Shiva’s fivefold nature 15 Terracotta Early Asian, Qin 210BCE Warriors dynasty(China) 5 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Formal Characteristics • Made of earthenware • Life-size • Sculpture • 8000 soldiers and 100 horses stand in military formation to guard the tomb Cultural Context • Qin considered himself the ruler of the world; he brought prosperity by building canals and an irrigation system to increase agriculture production and by facilitating trades. During this time 300,000 men— defended his empire and after his death underground terracotta figures stood in military form to defend him. 16 Rubbing of a Early Asian, Han 151 CE stone relief dynasty(China) (Relief in the Wu family shrine) Formal Characteristics • Stone • Carved and engraved on stone slabs • 70X169 cm Cultural Context • Meant to teach such basic Confucian tenets as respect for the emperor, filial piety, and wifely devotion occupied the ground floor, while the family lived in the upper stories. 17 Seated Buddha Early Asian, 460 CE from Shaanix Northern Wei dynasty(China) Formal Characteristics • Height 45’ • Stone • Sculpture • The Buddha is seated in a formal position and his hands are in mudra position Cultural Context • He has traditional attributes of a Buddha • The mask like face, massive shoulders, and shallow, stylized drapery indicates a strong central Asian influence 18 Young girl Ancient Greece, Before 1630 BCE gathering saffron Minoan, crocus flowers 6 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Formal Characteristics • Wall painting • Bald women with fringe and ponytail picking saffron • Body is in motion Cultural Context • The girl is clearly on the verge of womanhood, as the re-growth of her shorn hair • The flowers were used for paint and seasoning, but also to alleviate menstrual cramps, indicating a possible use in women’s initiation rites. 19 Anavysos Kouros Ancient Greece, 530 BCE Archaic period Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble with remnants of paint • 6’4” • Limbs are close to body • Similar to Egyptian statue with masculine male with one leg in front of other Cultural Context • This young man is completely nude this serves to remove the figure from a specific place, time, or social class. • He is a symbol or type, not a specific individual 20 Ajax and Ancient Greece, 540-530 BCE Achillees playing Classical period, a game Formal Characteristics • Black-figure vase • Height is 24” • Ceramic • Black figures drawn on with slip Cultural Context • a symbol for Trojan war since they are both suited up in armor it may be suggesting that they will be heading back into the battle at any moment 21 Pathenon, Ancient Greece, 400 BCE Acropolis Classical period, 7 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Formal Characteristics Marble Cultural Context 22 Nike Adjusting Ancient Greece, 410-405 BCE her Sandal Classical period Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • Height 3’6” • Depicts movement Cultural Context • Greek sculptors sought to create timeless images of men and women by embodying within them an ideal notion of human appearance and deportment. 23 Polykleitos Spear Ancient Greece, 450-440 BCE Bearer Classical period Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • 6’11” • Movement • Idealized Cultural Context • Greek sculptors sought to create timeless images of men and women by embodying within them an ideal notion of human appearance and deportment. • Taking the best attributes of humans and combining them to make it into a single ideal person. 24 Hermes and the Ancient Greece, Roman copy after infant Dionysos Late classical 4 century BCE period 8 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • 7’1” • Marble with red paint on lips and hair • Movement Cultural Context • Greek sculptors sought to create timeless images of men and women by embodying within them an ideal notion of human appearance and deportment. • Taking the best attributes of humans and combining them to make it into a single ideal person. 25 Nike of Ancient Greece, 180 BCE Samothrace Hellenistic period Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • 8’1” Cultural Context • This sculpture was perhaps created to commemorate the victory over the Seleucid king Antiochus (the third) in 190 BCE. 26 Aphrodite of Ancient Greece, 150-100 BCE Melos/Venus de Hellenistic period Milo Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • 6’8” • Movement • Erotic motion with the drapery slipping off Cultural Context • Hellenistic sculpture repeats the innovations of the "second classicism": perfect sculpture-in-the-round, allowing the statue to be admired from all angles; study of draping and effects of transparency of clothing; suppleness of poses. • Thus, Venus de Milo, even while echoing a classic model, is distinguished by the twist of her hips. 27 Hagesandros, Ancient Greece 175-50 BCE Polydoros, and Hellenistic period Athanadoros of Rhodes: Laocoön 9 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 and his sons Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • Idealized • Movement Cultural Context • Hellenistic sculpture repeats the innovations of the "second classicism": perfect sculpture-in-the-round, allowing the statue to be admired from all angles; study of draping and effects of transparency of clothing; suppleness of poses. • Laocoön, strangled by snakes, tries desperately to loosen their grip without affording a glance at his dying sons. 28 Reclining couple Etruscan 520 BCE on a sarcophagus (Etruscan sarcophagus from Cerveteri) Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Terracotta • Length 6’7” Cultural Context • Funerary art; was a container for the body to be placed when dead. • Terracotta was arguably the most popular medium used by the Etruscans, forming the majority of their statues and sculptures. • This sarcophagus displays the Etruscan love of gestures and emotion. 29 Dying Gallic Ancient Greece 220 BCE Trumpter Hellenistic period Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • Life size 36 ½” Cultural Context • Although it represents a defeated enemy, it still records his heroism and bravery. • It is typically Hellenistic in that it depicts pain expressively (his bleeding wound is obvious at his side) and in that it attempts to evoke 10 Tasneem. Panchbhaya Ways of Seeing Introduction to Art History Must-Know Images VPHA46H3 an emotional response from the viewer. 30 Colosseum Early empire, 72-80 CE Rome Formal Characteristics • Travertine and tufa blocks and with Concrete faced with stone • Can hold 50,000 spectators • The outer layer of the colosseum consists of 3 levels of arcades surmounted by an attic story. Cultural Context • The building of the Ancient Roman Colosseum was widely regarded as a political move of the time, intended for entertaining and, possibly more importantly, distracting Rome's population from more serious issues of the time 31 Pantheon Early Empire, 118-128 CE Rome Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Concrete • Cultural Context • Temple built for all the Gods. • The entrance was made to resemble a typical rectangular Roman temple. • IT later became a Christian church • The opening at the top of the dome is the only source of natural light in the dome 32 Constantine the Late empire, 325-326 CE Great Rome Formal Characteristics • Sculpture • Marble • 8’6” Cultural Context • The sculpture was built for Constantine whom was a great ruler; he 11 Tasneem. Panchbha
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