Ancient Art and Architecture Final Exam Notes

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Art History
Roger Mc Cleary

Ancient Art and Architecture Final Exam Notes Part I - Cumulative Term Listings: A Apse: Large, semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched/with a domed roof. Usually contains an altar. Apsidal: Related to Apse. Antefixe(s): An upright ornament along the eaves of a tiled roof designed to conceal the joints between the rows of tiles. Agora: Central spot in Greek city-states. The word means “gathering place” or “assembly” and references the spot in Greek city-states where public gatherings would occur for art, athletics, military, etc.… Acropolis: A citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill, ex. Ancient citadel at Athens containing the Parthenon. 91. Reconstruction drawing of the acropolis at Athens showing the placement of the major 5 century BCE buildings. Altar(s) of Temples: a room in a temple where the statue of the deity was located 97. Part of the procession from the Ara Pacis, 13-9BCE, height 155cm, Rome. (Altar enclosure was decorated with these reliefs) Aegean Palace Culture (The Sea Peoples): Palace culture on Crete, artworks made (bull-leaping) and great palaces established (Minoan ex/Knossos). Greek folk migrations from East around 1200-110 BCE caused the demise of this palace culture. Also caused the demise of Linear B. Atrium (Atria): Central hall or court in a building, with rooms/galleries springing off from it. 114. Plan of a traditional Roman atrium house. 115. Plan of a Roman house with the traditional atrium in front and a peristyle added at the back. 116. View from the fauces through the atrium into the peristyle of a house (the House of the Menander) in Pompeii, 1 century BCE. Arches: Curved symmetrical structure, spanning an opening and typically supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, wall, etc.. Analepsis: Unseen scenario which is proceeded by the current snapshot that an artist currently depicts. Ex/ Funerary vase, Analepsis= how the warrior died. Not shown in vase painting. Axial plans: plan where the design and the placement of individual elements are balanced and strictly symmetrical for organizational coherence. Rigorous axial symmetry is combined with a play of curved and rectangular forms to produce a climactic ascent to the apex 92. Reconstruction drawing of the sanctuary of Fortuna at Praeneste, Roman, 1 century BC. Amphitheatre: Round/oval building, typically unroofed, with a central space for the presentation of drama/sporting events. The seating can be one directional, or surrounding, and is almost always sloping downward. 88. The theatre at Epidauros, 4 century BC (regular Greek theatre – semicircle instead of fully encased oval arena) 124. The Colosseum as shown on a coin minted AD238-244. 125. Exterior of the Colossem (the Flavian amphitheatre), inaugurated AD80, Rome. 126. Drawing of the Colosseum showing the structure without the addition of the applied orders Agon: Means “fight, struggle, contest” in Greek. Usually refers to a contest or struggle in the Olympic games or in a broader sense, public festivals and activities pertaining to Greek culture. Agon was also commonly referenced to Greek fatalism (predetermined events, inevitability). Aerial Perspective: B Black Figure Style: A technique for painting pottery that depended on figures in black silhouette incised detail and added colour. Bilateral Symmetry: Having matching left/right sides (perfect symmetry). In the case of a sculpture, both sides of it are symmetrical and if you cut it in half, both sides would be identical. Basilica Structures: Large hall-like structure with double colonnades and a semicircular apse. Brutal Portraiture: Image of a real person, not a generic portion (like Discus thrower, someone who cannot be identified). Captures human flaws (Pathos shown in face) brutalism and attempts to depict the real (non idealized) human being. 94. Titus, ca. AD80, height 196cm, Vatican Museums, Rome. Bathes *Roman+ or ‘Themae’: core wall construction and aqueducts; colossal bath establishments/all- round physical and educational establishments (public amenity) that serviced up to 5 to 6000 people at a time. The emperor subsidized the costs of using these bathes and there would be free food and games offered. These bathes were found all throughout the Roman Empire and were considered as a rest site for misery. 127. Plan of the Bath of Caracalle, AD 216. 128. Reconstruction of the frigidarium (Great Hall) of the Baths of Caracalla. Fototeca Unione. C Clamping (lead clamps): Used to unify adjoining block columns as supported ornaments. Coliseum: Large theatre or stadium, typically featuring drama, athletic or gladiatorial spectacles. 124. The Colosseum as shown on a coin minted AD238-244. 125. Exterior of the Colosseum (the Flavian amphitheatre), inaugurated AD80, Rome. 126. Drawing of the Colosseum showing the structure without the addition of the applied orders. Centaur: A mythological Greek creature, featuring the head, arms and torso of a human, with the body and legs of a horse. Columns (as framing devices): Cylindrical support of a door frame/pediment. Centering (scaffolding for arches): a temporary (normally wooden) framework for supporting a masonry arch or vault during construction before the structure is able to stand by itself Chiastic Pose: Cross-balance pose, demonstrated in sculptures. Curvilinearity/Curvilinear [in house plans]: Composed of or bound by curved lines. Cover tile of Roof: roof constructed of individual tiles Colossos: A larger then life-sized statue. Colonization (age of) 750 BCE: Demographic growth in 800 BCE, Greece was not capable of supporting large populations for a few reasons (bad agriculture, overpopulated Polis), this led to colonization. Most popular sites were the Eastern Mediterranean (Syria-Lebanon-Israel-Egypt), Southern Italy/Sicily, North Aegean, Black Sea, etc. Contrapposto Stance: A stance in which the majority of weight is put on one foot, giving the sculpture a leaning, relaxed look. 93. Augustus from Prima Porta, ca. 19BC, height 204cm, Vatican Museums, Rome. Corewall Cement Construction: technique and combination of materials including limestone, volcanic sand/ash, straws/rags and water. These are the building materials that sparked the modern architectural age we are living in. Compluvium (Cumpluvia): A space left unroofed over the court of a Roman dwelling, through which the rain fell into the impluvium or cistern Classical Sculptures: Refers to the new movement of sculptures/art, from 500-late 300 CE, which was divided into early, high and late periods. The classical style attempts to create realistic appearances and movements within their sculptures. Civic Art: Art created with the intention of beautifying the city, whether it’s monumental, architectural, structural, etc.… Cremation Burial: Early Greek heroic burial custom. Court (Royal) Art: art forms that exemplify or illustrate the elegant tastes or customs of a royal court — often opposed to folk art Copies of Original Greek Sculptures: Usually marble copies of original Greek Bronzes. Sometimes directly copied but can also copy elements of Greek bronzes and incorporate them into Roman marble copes, ex. Augustus of Prima Porta vs. Spear-Bearer. Chryselephantine: Gold-plated statues (for clothing) and ivory (for flesh), most likely constructed on a wood framework. D Domus (Domi): the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras. It could be found in almost all the major cities throughout the Roman territories Directionalism in Art: Technique used to depict sculptural direction or intent. This can be done through the manipulation of limbs, indicating a direction that the sculpture is acting in or a movement of the body and also in the depiction of the clothes, for example drapery folds can depict the direction (or wind blowing). Decorations vs. Ornaments: Both used to beautify something, difference is that decorations are 2D and ornaments are 3D. E Etrusco-Roman Podium Temples: - Etruscan before Romans; podium prevents floods and separates temple from everyday world. It also raises the temple up to the heavens. 117. Reconstruction drawing of a traditional Etruscan-early Roman type of temple. Entases of Columns: Classical columns that increase in diameter from top to bottom (Doric order and some Roman columns). Equestrian Statue (on horseback): statue of a person riding a horse Ekephora: Funerary procession with horses/chariots & mourners. Ekphora are depicted on ceramic vases such as in the Dipylon vase. F Frontally in Sculptures/Figurines: The literal head on view of an object. No attempt to shift body or depict dynamic poses, ex. Archaic statues. Forum (Fora): Public square or market place used for judicial and business purposes. Fauces: Entrance passage in a traditional Roman house leading to the atrium. 116. View from the fauces through the atrium into the peristyle of a house (the House of the st Menander) in Pompeii, 1 century BCE. Fantasy in Art: Refers to the depiction of dramatic events in art, possibly even mythological. This is art for the sake of art, and is often meant for civic use opposed to propaganda. Frieze(s) Sculpture: Sculptures which are incised into a solid surface, giving them a a 3D appearance on the 2D background. 97. Part of the procession from the Ara Pacis, 13-9BCE, height 155cm, Rome. 100. Romans attacked by barbarians, AD113, height of frieze ca. 100cm, Column of Trajan, Rome. 101. Victory writing on a shield, AD 113, height of frieze ca. 100cm, Column of Trajan, Rome. 102. Massacre of barbarians, AD108-193, height of frieze ca. 130cm, Column of Marcus Aurelius, Rome. Fresco Technique: Painting done in watercolour on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling, so that the colours penetrate the plaster and become fixed as it dries. 108. Second Style room from the Villa of the Mysteries, mid 1 century BCE, height (of figures) ca. 150cm, Pompeii. NB: This is an artistic development of the First Style; in Second Style, the walls were painted to suggest either that the confines of the room had been pushed back or that they had been totally removed. 109. Third Style wall from Boscotrecase, Roman wall painting from the late 1 century BCE. NB: The Third Style emphasized the flat confining nature of the walls, delighted in delicate and sophisticated details and outspokenly denied all appearance of rationality and logic. 111. Fourth Style room in the house of the Vettii. Roman wall paintings from the third st quarter of the 1 century AD, Pompeii. NB: The Fourth Style is a new synthesis between the Second Style’s spaciousness and the Third Style’s elegance. Female Nudity: Originally seen as untraditional/considered blaspheme. By 350 BCE, sculptures of the Greek God Aphrodite were found from Knidos, demonstrating a new interest in not only male nudity but female nudity as well (theorized as created for shock value). Figural art: Originally depicted on Greek vases, figural art was highly geometric during the 740s-700 BCE and by 720-onward we see more complex figures, more attempts at realistic interoperations. For example, the Diplon vase is very basic, very geometric figural art. Black/red figure painting features more complex figures. The content of figural art was also very concerned with the portrayal of heroic deeds and gods. G Garland(s): A circlet of flowers/leafs worn on the head as adornments. Used commonly as a device to symbolize distinction or prestige. Genre Subjects: Categorization of specific subjects/styles of artwork. For example, classical, early classical, Hellenistic, Augustan, high classical style, etc… all different genres/types of sculpture. Grave Goods: Used during early Greek warrior burial ceremonies. Goods would be buried with the dead, as indices of social status and roles. “Golden Age” Propaganda of Augustus: spreading of “promised peace” throughout the Roman Empire including the rebuilding of temples, public amenities, games in specific theatres/arenas, etc… Thought was meant to permeate across the people with happiness and future economic prosperity as its basis. 93. Augustus from Prima Porta, ca. 19BC, height 204cm, Vatican Museums, Rome. Giants vs. Gods (Gigantomachy): Classically depicted Greek art theme, in which the Gods are characterized as good and the Giants are bad. The gods/giants battle, the gods always winning, demonstrating their protection over humanity. H Hyper-realistic Anatomy and Portraiture: Showing wounds that are bleeding or death being administered. More theatrical way of depictions in sculpture. Difference between Brutal/Hyper realism is that Brutal= just as realistic, minus the dramatic exaggeration. You won’t see blood spewing out, or flesh ripping from a sword like you would in Hyper realism, as in the case of the suicidal Gaul and his wife. 102. Massacre of barbarians, ad108-193, height of frieze ca. 130cm, Column of Marcus Aurelius, Rome. Hierarchy Greek Society/Warrior Culture: Greek warrior culture was significant to social life, as ones social rank was based on their ability to wage war, the amount of valor they possessed, and ownership of iron arms, armor and horses. Hollow casting technique: Used to create many Greek sculptures. A hollow figure was created and filled with molten bronze and then washed with corrosive materials so the hollow casing would come off the sculpture. Hero(Heroization)/Hero-cults: The hero was defined by his ethos (character), arete (innate excellence) and semnos (revered majestic) . One became a hero for committing selfless and heroic acts (often mythological connection) and cults were formed around a hero/their tomb for worship as a demi-god. Hippodamus of Miletus andthrth-plan Cities: Ancient Greek architect and urban planner. Significant because between the 5 -4 century, he planned out several Greek cities and colonies. I Idealization/Idealizing: Regard or create something that is better then its actuality. For example, in classical sculpture, statues have idealized proportions (nice athletic body). st Incrustation Style (1 Pompeian Painting Style) of Interior Wall Decorations: consisted of covering the wall with plaster painted and shaped to look like different kinds of marble slabs. It was supposed to make the whole wall appear as if veneered with expensive foreign marbles, which is presumable the way palaces were decorated. Impulvium (impulvia, pl.): shallow pool leading to a cistern in the atrium of Roman house in which rainwater was collected 114. Plan of a Roman atrium house Illusionistic sculpting (chiaroscuro): eg. Of ‘anatomy’ ‘beneath’ drapery folds) and painting, using manipulation of light and shade/shadow effects to give 3D appearance. Iron Age: ca. 1200BCE to the present Ideology: how you formulate an idea in your head; collethive viewpoint or outlook. Greek ideology based around binary opposites. Much of the art in the 5 century is defined by this notion. K Krater: wide-mouthed mixing bowl Kouros (Kouroi, pl.): nude male standing figure in bronze, stone, etc with left foot forward. Kore (Korai, pl.): female standing figure in bronze, metal or stone, 99.9% of the time dressed. L Late geometric period: create stark figures against pot that tell a narrative Lappet Wig: Believed to have Egyptian origins, are present in some Greek sculptures but changed slightly as demonstrated in Daedalic sculptures, which feature geometric patterns for the hair but still features that over the shoulder, energetic short haired cut. M Motion line(s) vs. modeling lines: Motion lines= indicate motion of the statue. For example, when Nike lifts her arm, the drapery may seem pulled, to reflect the action of the sculpture. Modeling lines are lines intended on further idealizing the sculpture, giving it shape and form. For example, Augustus of Prima Porta has a breastplate on but his athletic proportions are idealized through the incised modeling lines, demonstrating his athletic figure. Mesomorph body type: the ideal body type; muscular arms and legs, triangular chest, narrow waist Metaphor(s): hidden meaning or contemporary add-on meanings; can be visual Metope(s): stone or terracotta panels alternating with triglyphs in the Doric order. Megaron (megora, pl.): term used for a large house structure and even applied to a king’s palace by Homer with A-line roof structures Maeonder(s) motif: The ‘filler’ art in Greek pottery, armor decoration and textile patterns, which is a repetitive and the purpose of its presence, is to decorate the vase/fill the space. Divided into three types, simple, comp
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