Gothic Architecture notes.pdf

26 Pages
176 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Art History
Course
VPHC42H3
Professor
Candice Bogdansk
Semester
Summer

Description
Choir: CanterburyCathedral • Theatricalstageasmovetowardsshrine • Differenttypeofgeometriccapitals • Foundedin597 withgreatAnglo-Saxoninfluence • MoldingwallarcheshaveamoreGothic character • BaseddesignonSt.EtienneinCaen • ImpositionofNormanstyle Trinitychapel: • Easternextension:1130 • 6to 4part vaultreductiontodoublecapitalrespond • September51174: fireat Canterbury allowedrebuilding • East endca. 1175 -1184 • Realheftytypeofbuttress ○ Opportunitytoopenuptolancetwindows ○ Sparkedachainof rebuildinginotherlocations • Stainedglass=lifeandmiracleofSt.Thomas  TrendofrebuildingEasternendtofacilitateaccesstoshrine(ex. ambulatory) • 3part elevationallowingopportunityofstainedglass ○ ShouldremindusofVezelay  Emphasizessaint'spowerandtheroletherelicsplayasaform of • Loveelaborationofdetail pilgrimactivity ○ After1185, lotsof renewedbuildinghappeningincludingnewextensionand ○ Water-holdingbasatbottomofrespond • Passageatclerestorylevel newstyle(canbeforcompetitivereasonsandcultpromotion) • Gallerylevelwithclusteredshaftandcrocketcapital • Gervese -heavenlyaspectoffireandGodbecauseBecketwasupsetthatrebuilding hadnothappenedyet • Deeplysetstillordersofthearch • Everythingisrichlymoldedandcarved • ThomasBecketvs.Henry2nd -highlydramaticpoliticalassassination • Necking(neckring)aboveandbelowcapitalonrespond • Biggerwindowsandnewtypeofvaultingsingtuff(incrediblyporousstone) • Enlargedwithspacious,fullyvaultedchoirwithtrinitychapel(housingashrine) ○ LookingtoFrench • ContinuityofRomanesque • CoronaofthebuildingholdsspecificrelicsoftheBishop'shead • Mastermason:WilliamofSens • Hadto rebuildouterwallexpandinglengthwithinteriorrebuiltcompletely EarlyEnglish style(1170 - 1280): • Navepost1400 • Ribbedvaultandpointedarches(full-fledgesGothic) • Foliatesculptureandchevron Interior: • Shaftworkdifficultbecausesomebuildingsmaybeaustere • Shrineplaceddirectlyabovecrypt ○ Presenceofshrineinformsthearchitecture;shrineisnowallowedtobeata After1185: differentplace Northeasterntransept: • GrowthofnationalidentityinEnglandatthistime • Moneyreceivedgoestowardsrebuilding • ConnectedtoearlyRomanesquestructure • Lowspringingofhighvault • Wallpassageusinglintelgivesstructuralsupport TheGreatCanterburyFallacy: • AlwaysthoughttobethebeginningofGothic • Hollowingoutofwall • Maintainedexteriorbutrevampedinterior • Purbeckmarble(polishedblackstone)usedasdetailtoshowdecorativeelements • Dog-toothinhollow • Motherchurchof allof England • ArchbishopofCanterburyoverseesallchurchesinsouthernEnglandandverylargely • CrocketcapitalwasfeaturedinEngland influentialonotherchurches ○ Doesn’tmakesenseforEnglandtowait30+ yearsbeforestartingGothicstyle • EnglishwerereadytoadapttoNorthernFrenchstylesincehierarchyinEnglishchurcheswereFrench ○ Norman(Romanesque)conquest • LiteraltransmissionofstylesincepeopleneededtotraveltoParistoseeKing NidarosCathedral • Ca.1150 - 1250 • Mostnorthernofallthe medievalcathedralsbutveryconnectedtotheNorthSea • Creationofanarchdiocesesincetheyhaveanecclesiasticalreach • Locationofthesaintshrinewasfixed • Becauseofreach,rebuildingneededtoaccommodatespaceandcult • Earlierportionbuiltwastransept(buildingplanwasstrange) • ArchbishopOystein • RebuildingtheoctagonthattakesinspirationfromLincoln • CombinationofRomanesque,TransitionalandGothicstyle • Takingonas manyvisualvarietyaspossible • SatelliteconnectionandLincoln'sreach • Distinctprocessofselection-pickingandchoosingthebestaspectsfortheshrineofSt.Olaftoelevate buildingandarchbishophimself ChapterHouse: • WaterleafcapitalbecomesverytypicalinYorkshire • Keelonshaft YorkMinster* • 1154 - 1181 • BuiltbyArchbishopRoger ○ Largeplayerinpolitics • Yorkisa fairlylargeecclesiasticalregion • Yorkand Canterburywereingreatdebatewitheachother ○ Rivalryexpressedarchitecturally ○ Yorktriesto makeitselfreallybigburrebuildingofCanterburyincludedadditionalparts(5-9 bays) PanelfromTreeofJess(ancestorofChrist: • StainedglassinEasternend ○ LookingovertoFrance(St.Denis) • ManymaterialreusedindifferentwaysintheconstantrebuildingofYork • DraperyhasRomanprecedent/antiquity Crypt: • Progressiveelementsarehappening ○ Massivecolumnswithinclusionofengagedshaftoncardinalaxis • Wallhaspointedarches ○ EvidenceofEarlyGothicelementswellbeforefireatCanterbury RiponMinster • Ca.1160 - 1170 • Mainpatron:ArchbishopRoger ○ Arguesthatitwas similartoYork • Minsterchurch=centralbuildinginAnglo-Saxoncommunity • Focuson3 westernbays • 3storyelevation:mainarcade,triforiumandclerestory(notacleardismissalofPre-Gothicstyle) • Navepiersareslimmeddown • Groupingofshafts=clusterpiers • Quatrefoilplatetracery • FlankinginB-aarrangement • Carefullycoursedribsandvaultingsystem VersusDurhamCathedral: VersusNoyonCathedral: • Showsmoreofa departureofAnglo-Normanstyle • Preferenceofclusterpiers ○ StandardofNorthernEnglandchurches VersusLaonCathedral: • Basesthatsiton top ofshaftshaveno precedenttootherEnglishwork=NorthernFrenchinfluence • Nave:canseea lotof similarity • Gougerolls ○ Slendernessandwidespacingofarcadepiers ○ Opennessofnave Temple Church,London • Ca.1161 • OldestGothicsurvivalnotininfluentialbuildingsorlocation • Evidenceofregion'sreceptivenessofFrenchideabutusesdifferentmarble(stonethattooktohigh polishing) • Restoredseveraltimes • Choiraddedin1220 • Plan:centralizedandroundwithporchbasedonChristiantomb • Thickerbuttress Interior: • Falsetriforium=Romanesquestyleanddesign • Firsttimeusessteeplypointedpitchedvault • 4detachedshafts • Abacus(stoneabovecapital) • BeakmoldingusedearlierinBelgiumandhadsomeprecedentinNorthernFrance ○ Hassomemotifwithdarkstone • VisuallyconnectedtoLaon • Woodenplasterpaintedtolooklikemasonry • Smallvolutetypecapitalstocarryvaulting Doorway: • UsessomeofthefoliagewithdeepundercuttinginfluencedfromSt.DenisbutnotexactlyGothic(no jambfiguresandlargesculptures) ○ Preferredsmallscaleddecorativedesign • Alternatingbetweenrichandplainorder(Frenchwould'vehadmoreiconographicprogram) WorcesterCathedral • Begun1175 • BishopRogerofWorcester • WestendandcrossingaddedlaterbutintegrateRomanesquestylewithGothic • FirstlargescaleworkintheSouthWest whilekeepingalotofRomanesquepreferenceslikesurface decorationandarticulation Interior: • TriplearchopeninginthetriforiumremindsusofSt.Germer-de-Fly • ArchmoldinglooksatNotre-DamedeParisbutstilllooksatregionalinfluence ○ Archgoingallthewayfrom thebottomwithoutinterruptingthecapitallookstoGloucesterand MalmesburyAbbey(lateRomanesquedesign)buttherearestillmuchearliersources • Patera-icing-likewallbossesbecomeverypopular ○ Localmotif • Neo-Antiquestylecolumnsareadaptedandchangedaccordingtotheenvironment • ContinuestousescallopcapitalsandablendofGothicstylefoliage • Passageatclerestory(inthestyleofAnglo-NormanRomanesque) • Chevronstillused Wells Cathedral • Begun1180 ChapterHouse: • Westernend(1175- 1184) everythingelsewasconstructedlater • 1280-1319 • TheporchreferencesWorcesterandOldSarum • Meetingplaceofthepeoplewhorunthebuilding • Transeptwithaisleswasalsoirregularatthetime • PurbeckmarblestillusedinthestaircaseheadingtoChapterHouse • IncompetitionwithBathatthetime • Towerscutoutonthe side LadyChapel: • Westfronttreatedasseparateoftherestofthe building • Dome-likebuthasitcomedownona drum • Aportionofthecentralpartiscarried ona barrelvault Northporchinterior: • Unusualundulatingribvaultdesign • Detachedshaftsheldtogetherwithshaftrings ○ Spaceforinnovationjustlikewindowtracery • Stardesignwithbosses Interior: • Complexliernevault • Anglo-SaxonelementsresidebutGothicoverall • Doublehollow-techniquefavored • TierceronmorecomplexasyouprogressintoLadyChapeltoemphasizetheimportance • Reviseddesignin1190butstillseerollsandhollows • Continuousarchmoldingcreateselongationeffect Retrochoir: • Clusterpiers(bundleofthingverticalresponds) • IntegratedandhasaspatialcomplexityespeciallyinthevaultsimilartocryptatGlasgow ○ Rejectionofusingcolumnarresponds(lookingatFrenchinfluence) ○ Toenshrineabishopandgiveanarchitecturalcanopy • Doesn’thaveshallowdepth;thickwallsinstead • Soaringarches(14thcentury) Choir: • Lookingatbandedelevation • Vaultsarebasicallyapointedbarrelvault(popularinRomanesquechurches) Easternend: • Plasteroverthemasonry(tuffaplaster)makingitlightersononeedforflyingbuttresses • Ca.1320 - 1340 • Netvault ○ Takeliernevaultsandmakeapatternwithit(hexagonsandsquares) • Extendedformoreprivacy • Longitudinalemphasisstillhere,butalsoclerestoryemphasis • InFrench,barrelvaultwouldhavebeenconsiderednotinnovativefromtheRomanesqueatall • IncludingRayonnettypeofmetalworkandOgeearches • Moreunifiesdecorativeinterior Decoratedstyle(1250 - 1350) • CouldcontainwhatwesawatWestminster,dependingonwhichscholar • Gothicarchitecturebecomesessentiallymorecomplex ○ Decorationbecomesincreasinglystresseduponnotonlyinregional/nationalaspectsbutalsoinpersonalwaysaswell(porche s,etc…) • Englishcontinuetoaddandlayeronelements(nothugeonvisualunitylikeRayonnet) • Ogeearch=curvedpointedarch ○ Complexandvariedchurchornament • NoddingOgee=someleaningforward ○ Capturesfantasticandanti-rationalaspectofdesignduringthistime ○ Whenusedinwindows=liberationofdesign • Thickwallsmaintainedallowingrichandlivelydecoration • BecauseEnglanddidn'thavedecoratedportalsandflyingbuttresses,microarchitecturegetsapplieddifferentlyassurfacedecorationandchurchfurniture SouthEasttransept: LincolnCathedral* • Beganrebuildingprogram • 6part vaultsetovera singlebay(veryuncommon) • Ca.1075 ○ Interestinvaultingdevelopsasaplayground • 1141 - fire/repair • Purbeckmarble • 1192 - rebuildchoirand easterntransept • Placedontopofa hilllikeabeaconandwouldhavebeenevenmoreprominentifthespirals • Wallthicknessismaintained ○ Wallpassageatclerestorylevel werestillthere ○ Doublearcades • Becametheseatofa bishopthatoverlookedalotofregions ○ Maintainedalotofinfluencestructurallyandarchitecturally ○ Lowspringingforvaults,multiplestepping ○ Archesareincrediblyprofiled • Shortapsidalchoirwithaislesbutallthatisleftisthewestfront ○ Purbeckusedforabacus(fromCanterburywithlineagefromFrance) • 1185 - devastatingearthquake that destructeda lot of thechurch • 1186 - Henry 6th takes charge and appointsQ of Avalon(key patron) until1200 ○ Syncopated(superimposed)arcading ○ Trefoil • 1256 - easternend extendedagainto add AngelChoir • Fullyraisedplinthoffthebottominsteadofontheground • CrossingisoneofthelargestinEurope(butlate14th century) ○ Colonettesonindividualbases • OriginalhexagonalendinspiredbyCanterbury(Corona,centrallyplannedchapel) • IntheprocessofrebuildingthereareissueswiththedesignbutLincoln ○ Wantedtoimproveonit masterwasstillinnovative ○ TookrichestpartsofCanterburyand madeitpart of thenorm forthe entirestructure AngelChoir: Easttranseptand choirextension: • Begun1256 • Introductionofmicrostructure • Intendedtoaccommodatespaceforshrineofpatronsaint ○ Buttressusedtoaddmoredecorationandelaboration • Removesapseandadsa 5bay extension • Usingpointedwindowstofillasmuchspaceas possible(butnotvery • Increasedopenwork successful) • UsesPurbeckmarble • CalledAngelchoirbecause30angelssculptedinside Lincoln/Trondheimpier: • 481 feetfromwestallthewayto Angelchoir • NorthSealinkage • TriforiumtakesontheTrondheimpier • Coursedcentralcolumnwithcrocketsand4detachedPurbeck • Clerestoryhas4lightwindowsusingthroughstone,addingstabilityandvisibility colonettes • Rayonnetelementsfordecorativevalue • Amazingstiffleaffoliage(takecrocketpierandaddclover • LaterarchitectslooktoEnglishbuildingincludingFrenchelementsinsteadoftoFrenchitself lookingleaves) St.Hugh'sChoir: Westernmostbay: • Alternationofsmallerandlargerbuttresses • Revertsbackto6 part vaultbeonlybecauseofcollapseandneededquickremedy • 5part vaultribsconnectto lancetwindows Northtransept: ○ SolutiontoaprobleminCanterburythatused1vault ○ Lincolntookthisaspectandmadeitdecorative • Dean'seye(rose) • Freestandingresponds,multiplicationoflancets • Blendofplateandbartracery includingtiebar(integraltodesign) • Alittlecrossthatholdsentirewindowtogether • Layeringofsurfacesandarcheswouldhavebeenseeninspandrel(nowsculptures) • Pierformsalternation • Mainwallpassageunderroseaddsglazedtriforiumlevel(remoi/champenoi) ○ LessconcernedwithFrench'slogicandsymmetry;moreaboutvariation Lincolnnave: • Springingofhighvaultarequitelow ○ Justcomesoffofhaunchesinarchesat triforiumlevel(thinkDurham) • Around1200 - 1240 =speculated2ndmason • Thinnerrespondscarryingchoir(reminderofEarlyGothicFrench) • Mainrespondstocarry highvaultare corbelledout • Springingofvaultisstillconservative • 'Crazyvaults'becauseithasa lotof asymmetry ○ ImportantEnglishcreation • MorelogicalorconservativeversionofSt.Hugh'svault ○ Ribsareappreciatedforthefirsttimefortheirdecorativepuposes ○ Plannedlike4pointedstar ○ Bothareveryinfluential • Traditional4part vaultandlongitudinalrib/ridge • Ribpassingdownthemiddlebreaksinto3unitsbutcompletelysound • Extradecorativeribaddedtotheboss(tierceron) ○ Lopsidedrhythm ○ Firstoneaddedever ○ OccasionallyfoundafterwardsinFrance,butabsolutelylovedinEngland ○ Takesawayseriousbay-by-baydivision(baysoftening)thankstocrazyvaults • Navewasa directresponseofthecrazyvaults • Stillhaveasofteningofthebaydivision • Longitudinalaxiscreatesvista • Baysarelengthenedperhapstoavoidcongestionofribs • Varietyinpierform • Courbelcarryingribforvaultshaft • Fearofnotionofplainness;emphasisonvariation • Ribsareincrediblyprofiledalongwithbosses ○ MaintainingandadaptingRomanesqueaspects Façade: Naveaisle: • LargepointedoversizedwindowusingOgeearch • Simplificationofsyncopatedarcade ○ Softeningofthepointsinthewindow • Addextrapointedarchesasmuchas possible SalisburyCathedral • Begun1220, dedicated1258 • ConquestofNormandyin1204by CapetiandynastyandattemptedconquestofEnglish • CloisterandChapter Housecompletedby 1266 • RejectionorlackofadoptionofFrenchstylebecauseofresentment • Crossingtowerand spire ca. 1328 ○ ResultsindivergingEnglish/Frenchstyle • Onlybuildingthatdidn’thavetocontendwithpastfabric • AlongwithLincolnCathedral(North),these2buildingswerearchitecturallyself-sufficient ○ Purelygothicfromstarttofinish ○ Mostof therestof WesternEuropelookedtoFranceforinspiration • Majorpatron: RichardPoore • Fullymasonryvaulted • Basilican/longitudinalplan(verticality=French;horizontality=English) Interior: Exterior: • Layeringofthearches • Allofthelimbs(N,S,E,W) are allverylowand longvesselsinproportion • Tracerycut out forquatrefoils ○ Compartmentalizingqualityoftheinterior • 8part shaftedpierinthechoircomparedto 4part in thenave • InfluenceofWells ○ Hierarchyofarticulation • Noflyersbecauseofthickwallsmaintained(onesthatcanbeseenwereaddedlateron) • RichardPoorewastryingto imitatepreviouscathedralorcontinuityofOldSarum • Strangegallerylevel VersusAmiens(alsobegun1220): ○ Respondsdon’tevenconnecttohighvault;justcorbelledout • 77ft Eastend: ○ Heightnotasimportant • Chapelonlyoneasternarminadditionaltransept(nodtoLincoln) • Clerestorypassagewayprthickwallsallowintricatedecorationofthearches(archmolding) • AdditionofLadyChapelattheveryendofeasternside • Bothhave4part rib vaultinsinglebay • Squareinsteadofsemi-circulardesignwasverypopularandparticularthatworked • Polishedblacklimestone withtheOldSarumliturgy ○ RequisitefeatureofallgreatchurchesinEngland • PlatetraceryremindsusofBourgesatgallerylevel(awarenessofFrenchinfluence) NorthwestPorch: Westfront: • MainentranceforOldSarum liturgy • "Falsefaçade" ○ Verydetailedandintricate • Noflankingtowersmaybebecauseoflackoffundsordidn'twantanythingto distract • Interiorofvaultishighdecoratedaswell centraltower GlasgowCathedral • Easternendbegun 1242 • LinkedvisuallywithLincoln,butmissessomecomponent • MostsignificantsiteofSt.Mungo • Cryptisnot subterraneanbecauseofthenatureofthesite(ontopofa hill) • Bondington • Morespaciouschoirand alter • Choirlength=navelength • Easternextensionwithcryptunderneathit,butnotunderground • 1301: KingEdward1st wenttoGlasgow Crypt: • Architectureincryptishighlyunique • Favoredstiffleafcapitalsbutsculpturedonlyaround4pierssurroundingshrine ○ Hierarchyofsignificance • Clusterpierwallsarerelativelythin • Pointedarcheswithrollsandhollows • Tombmaintainedpowerfuldrawtopilgrims • HighGothicinterior • Liernevaultaboveshrine ○ Additionalribsconnectingbetweenmaincrossingofvaultwithsculpturedbossattheendof everyjuncture WestminsterAbbey • Begin1245 by KingHenry3rd whodiedin1272 • UniqueamongGothicgreatchurchesbecausethisonewaspaidfor bythe King(singlepatron) • IntendedtobeforintheKinginthesensethathe washigherthanthe "commonman"and the"clergy" • PlantagenetwereequalsasopposedtosubjectoftheCapetian(French) • LookstoReimscathedral,St.DenisandSteChapelletovisuallyalignhimselfasequalstoFrenchkings butpeoplesawitasKing'sattemptto getpopular/enhancemystiqueofroyalty • HissuccessorEdwardwasmuch morelikedbytheEnglishpeople • MostFrenchlookingbuildingfromCanterbury • Greatheight=French;detail=English • Plan:polygonalambulatory • WestminsterremainsananomalyinEnglandmaybebecauseofdiscontinuitywithotherEnglish buildingsandKing'sobsessionofsacredassociation.Metaltracerydecorationlikedhowever. Exterior: Southtransept: • 2tiersofflyerstohelpcarry weight • ReflectopennesstoRayonnetandmoderntracery ○ Up-to-datewithwhat'shappeninginFrench • Cutouttrefoilheadinarches • LookstoSte Chapelleandmetalwork(only5yearsprior!)justtoadd sumptuousdetail Interior: • SimilargildingandglassasSteChapelle • Tiebarsusedduringconstruction(bracingelement)thatwereleftthere • Definitelyenoughspaceforrespondtoreachmainarcade • Lincolntypevaultinginaisles ChapterHouse: • Preferenceandsignificanceofgreatprofiledandlayeredarched=reason • GlasslikeatSteChapelleandStDenis • Centralpier whyrespondshaftsaresothing • StillthickwallsbutemployselongatedFrenchproportionsasadistraction ○ Allribsspringout(octagonal)allowingmorevisibilitythanRayonnet • MoreEnglishtypeofvaultdesign • Useof4 lightarrangementasopposedto2that wesaw inthe nave=moreof a unifiedpacket ○ Reimswastryingtoemphasizetheprominentofwindows • 2windowsinsteadof4becauselookingtoReimsasopposedtoAmiens whichissupposedtobethemostupdated • Designofvault:seeconnectingdecorativeliens(Lincoln) ○ Visualassociationmoreimportant HenryVII'sChapel: • Galleryhas2unittriforium • Ca.1503 - 1509 • Mostcrazy versionofpendantvaultscombinedwithfanvaults • Usesashlarshellasopposedtotuffa • Dynamicappearance ○ Createsadeepshadow • Perpendicularstyle ○ Rectilinearsurfacepanelling(sortoflikeRayonnetuseofmetalstyle) ○ Flatterarches
More Less

Related notes for VPHC42H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit