BIOA01H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Ecological Niche, Antimicrobial Resistance, Biological Pigment

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Bio lecture 2: Evolution: Microevolution: Genetic Changes within Populations
We are all connected. All life, past and present are connected by one ancestor.
What is evolution? Evolution is change over time.
What is biological evolution? Biological evolution is when there is a change in allele frequency
in the population. The genetics change over time in the population. Evolution happen in
populations, not individuals.
Micro evolution is when there is changes in species at a small scale. This can happen with
natural selection.
Heritable variation in genetics of population. Population is when individuals of species are at the
same place at the same time. Example of Microevolution under strong natural selection is
antibiotic resistance.
Phenotypic variation is the variety in phenotypes that exist in a population. Phenotypic plasticity
is when an organism has the ability to change its phenotype due to environmental factors.
There are two types of phenotypic variation: Quantitative variation and Qualitative variation.
Quantitative variation can be measured and controlled by multiple genes. The characteristics
have a range of variation.
Qualitative variation is difficult to measure and have characteristics with distinct states.
Polymorphism is distinct and has different variations of characteristics.
Genotypes and phenotypes not completely correlated. Phenotypic variations happen due to
genetics, environmental differences or both. Genetic differences in phenotype are heritable.
Experiments to determine connection between phenotype and genotype are keeping genetics
constant in different environments, breeding experiments (Mendel) and selection experiments.
Where does genetic variation come from? They come from new alleles from mutations. It can
also come from recombination (from crossing over, independent assortment and random
fertilization).
Two examples of artificial selections is dogs coming from wolves and most green vegetables
coming from the plant Brassica oleracea. The only reason why the vegetables look different is
because scientists chose certain genes for each vegetable.
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Bio lecture 3: Hardy-Weinberg and the Agents of Microevolution
Assessing genetic variation
It can be assessed by phenotypic variation (this is when phenotype is equal to
genotype). Ex. Mendel’s peas experiment and the snapdragons
It can also be directly measured by genetic variation. There are many cheap methods
and most of them are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a cheap way yo
copy or “amplify”small parts of DNA.
Gel electrophoresis
Is a method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA and protein.
A electric current is passed on the charged molecules, and it moves through a gel
In this case, the proteins of a fruit fly are taken. The gel is stained and is then used to
see the different proteins in the fruit fly
Population genetics
A population is a group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area,
each having their own genotype.
Not all populations are evolving. For evolution to occur, individuals within a population
must differ genetically
Gene pool
Gene pool is the sum of all alleles in a population at a given time.
It is possible to characterize a populations genetic makeup by describing its gene pool.
We can identify the genotypes and calucualte the genotype frequency. We can also
calculate allele frequency when we know that diploids have two alleles of each gene
Mind your P’s and Q’s
For loci with two alleles, the symbol “p” is used to identify the frequency of one
allele and “q” to identify the frequency of the other allele
Snapdragons are used as an example beccause they have incomplete dominance for
flower pigment
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Document Summary

Bio lecture 2: evolution: microevolution: genetic changes within populations. All life, past and present are connected by one ancestor. Biological evolution is when there is a change in allele frequency in the population. The genetics change over time in the population. Micro evolution is when there is changes in species at a small scale. Population is when individuals of species are at the same place at the same time. Example of microevolution under strong natural selection is antibiotic resistance. Phenotypic variation is the variety in phenotypes that exist in a population. Phenotypic plasticity is when an organism has the ability to change its phenotype due to environmental factors. There are two types of phenotypic variation: quantitative variation and qualitative variation. Quantitative variation can be measured and controlled by multiple genes. Qualitative variation is difficult to measure and have characteristics with distinct states. Polymorphism is distinct and has different variations of characteristics.

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